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Cuba (2003)

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Cuba 2003 year

Administrative divisions 14 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara
Age structure 0-14 years: 20.1% (male 1,164,376; female 1,103,061)

15-64 years: 69.6% (male 3,932,604; female 3,909,523)

65 years and over: 10.2% (male 531,608; female 622,257) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products sugar, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes, beans; livestock
Airports 161 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 70

over 3,047 m: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 22

under 914 m: 31 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 91

914 to 1,523 m: 28

under 914 m: 63 (2002)
Area total: 110,860 sq km

land: 110,860 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Background Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his iron rule has held the country together since then. Cuba's Communist revolution, with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. The country is now slowly recovering from a severe economic recession in 1990, following the withdrawal of former Soviet subsidies, worth $4 billion to $6 billion annually. Cuba portrays its difficulties as the result of the US embargo in place since 1961. Illicit migration to the US - using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, or falsified visas - is a continuing problem. Some 2,500 Cubans attempted the crossing of the Straits of Florida in 2002; the US Coast Guard apprehended about 60% of the individuals.
Birth rate 11.87 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $14.9 billion

expenditures: $15.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Havana
Climate tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)
Coastline 3,735 km
Constitution 24 February 1976, amended July 1992 and June 2002
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Cuba

conventional short form: Cuba

local long form: Republica de Cuba

local short form: Cuba
Currency Cuban peso (CUP)
Death rate 7.38 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $12.3 billion (convertible currency); another $15 billion -$20 billion owed to Russia (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US none; note - the US has an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer James C. CASON; address: USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada between L and M Streets, Vedado, Havana; telephone: [53] (7) 33-3551 through 3559 (operator assistance required); FAX: [53] (7) 33-3700; protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland
Diplomatic representation in the US none; note - Cuba has an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer Dagoberto RODRIGUEZ Barrera (since August 2001); address: Cuban Interests Section, Swiss Embassy, 2630 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone: [1] (202) 797-8518
Disputes - international US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease
Economic aid - recipient $68.2 million (1997 est.)
Economy - overview The government continues to balance the need for economic loosening against a desire for firm political control. It has undertaken limited reforms in recent years to increase enterprise efficiency and alleviate serious shortages of food, consumer goods, and services but is unlikely to implement extensive changes. A major feature of the economy is the dichotomy between relatively efficient export enclaves and inefficient domestic sectors. The average Cuban's standard of living remains at a lower level than before the severe economic depression of the early 1990s, which was caused by the loss of Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies. High oil import prices, recessions in key export markets, damage from Hurricanes Isidore and Lili, and the tourist slump after 11 September 2001 hampered growth in 2002.
Electricity - consumption 13.38 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 14.38 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 93.9%

hydro: 0.6%

nuclear: 0%

other: 5.4% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Pico Turquino 2,005 m
Environment - current issues air and water pollution; biodiversity loss; deforestation
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Ethnic groups mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%
Exchange rates Cuban pesos per US dollar - 1.0000 (nonconvertible, official rate, for international transactions, pegged to the US dollar); convertible peso sold for domestic use at a rate of 1.00 US dollar per 27 pesos by the Government of Cuba (2002)
Executive branch chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished; president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished; president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council of State, appointed by the National Assembly; note - there is also a Council of State whose members are elected by the National Assembly

elections: president and vice president elected by the National Assembly; election last held 6 March 2003 (next to be held in 2008)

election results: Fidel CASTRO Ruz reelected president; percent of legislative vote - 100%; Raul CASTRO Ruz elected vice president; percent of legislative vote - 100%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $1.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish, medical products, citrus, coffee
Exports - partners Netherlands 19.1%, Russia 18.1%, Canada 14.3%, Spain 9.5%, China 7.3% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white, five-pointed star in the center; design influenced by the US flag
GDP purchasing power parity - $30.69 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 7.6%

industry: 34.5%

services: 57.9% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,700 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.1% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 21 30 N, 80 00 W
Geography - note largest country in Caribbean and westernmost island of the Greater Antilles
Highways total: 60,858 km

paved: 29,820 km (including 638 km of expressway)

unpaved: 31,038 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs territorial waters and air space serve as transshipment zone for cocaine and heroin bound for the US and Europe; established the death penalty for certain drug-related crimes in 1999
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $4.8 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities petroleum, food, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners Spain 17.2%, China 12%, Italy 9.1%, France 7.6%, Mexico 7.3%, Canada 6.2%, US 5.6%, Brazil 4.7% (2002)
Independence 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from 1898 to 1902)
Industrial production growth rate 0.2% (2001 est.)
Industries sugar, petroleum, tobacco, chemicals, construction, services, nickel, steel, cement, agricultural machinery, biotechnology
Infant mortality rate total: 7.15 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 8.06 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 7.1% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 5 (2001)
Irrigated land 870 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch People's Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo Popular (president, vice president, and other judges are elected by the National Assembly)
Labor force 4.3 million

note: state sector 78%, non-state sector 22% (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 24%, industry 25%, services 51% (1999)
Land boundaries total: 29 km

border countries: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km

note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains part of Cuba
Land use arable land: 33.04%

permanent crops: 7.61%

other: 59.35% (1998 est.)
Languages Spanish
Legal system based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist legal theory; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly of People's Power or Asemblea Nacional del Poder Popular (609 seats, elected directly from slates approved by special candidacy commissions; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 19 January 2003 (next to be held in 2008)

election results: percent of vote - PCC 97.6%; seats - PCC 609
Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.8 years

male: 74.38 years

female: 79.36 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97%

male: 97.2%

female: 96.9% (2003 est.)
Location Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, 150 km south of Key West, Florida
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 59,257 GRT/90,295 DWT

ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 5, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 2 (2002 est.)
Military - note Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and supplier of Cuba, cut off almost all military aid by 1993
Military branches Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) including Revolutionary Army (ER), Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR), Territorial Militia Troops (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT); note - the Border Guard Troops (TGF) are controlled by the Interior Ministry
Military expenditures - dollar figure $NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP roughly 4% (FY95 est.)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 3,120,702

females age 15-49: 3,049,927

note: both sexes are liable for military service (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,923,967

females age 15-49: 1,875,412 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 17 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 81,095

females: 87,780 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 10 December (1898); note - 10 December 1898 is the date of independence from Spain, 20 May 1902 is the date of independence from US administration; Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953)
Nationality noun: Cuban(s)

adjective: Cuban
Natural hazards the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August to October (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every other year); droughts are common
Natural resources cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica, petroleum, arable land
Net migration rate -1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
People - note illicit migration is a continuing problem; Cubans attempt to depart the island and enter the US using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, direct flights, or falsified visas; some 2,500 Cubans took to the Straits of Florida in 2002; the US Coast Guard interdicted about 60% of these migrants; Cubans also use non-maritime routes to enter the US; some 1,500 Cubans arrived overland via the southwest border and direct flights to Miami in 2002
Pipelines gas 49 km; oil 230 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders only party - Cuban Communist Party or PCC [Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 11,263,429 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.34% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Cienfuegos, Havana, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas, Nuevitas, Santiago de Cuba
Radio broadcast stations AM 169, FM 55, shortwave 1 (1998)
Railways total: 3,442 km

standard gauge: 3,442 km 1.435-m gauge (142 km electrified)

note: an additional 7,742 km of track is used by sugar plantations; about 65% of this track is standard gauge; the rest is narrow gauge (2002)
Religions nominally 85% Roman Catholic prior to CASTRO assuming power; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria are also represented
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 16 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: NA

domestic: principal trunk system, end to end of country, is coaxial cable; fiber-optic distribution in Havana and on Isla de la Juventud; 2 microwave radio relay installations (one is old, US-built; the other newer, built during the period of Soviet support); both analog and digital mobile cellular service established

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
Telephones - main lines in use 473,031 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2,994 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 58 (1997)
Terrain mostly flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast
Total fertility rate 1.61 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.1% (2001 est.)
Waterways 240 km
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