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Kirgistan (2008)

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Kirgistan 2008 roku

 Kirgistan
Podzial administracyjny 7 provinces (oblastlar, singular - oblasty) and 1 city* (shaar); Batken Oblasty, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol)


note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following w parentheses)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 30.3% (male 817,663/female 785,167)


15-64 years: 63.5% (male 1,645,270/female 1,709,522)


65 years and over: 6.2% (male 127,600/female 198,927) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
Lotniska 30 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 18


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 3


1,524 to 2,437 m: 11


under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 12


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 1


under 914 m: 10 (2007)
Terytorium total: 198,500 sq km


land: 191,300 sq km


water: 7,200 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than South Dakota
Tlo historyczne A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of Kirgistan was formally annexed to Rosja w 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire w 1916 w which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. Kirgistan became a Soviet republic w 1936 and achieved independence w 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations w the spring of 2005 resulted w the ouster of President Askar AKAYEV, who had run the country since 1990. Subsequent presidential elections w lipiec 2005 were won overwhelmingly by former prime minister Kurmanbek BAKIYEV. The political opposition organized demonstrations w Bishkek w kwiecien, maj, and listopad 2006 resulting w the adoption of a new constitution that transferred some of the president's powers to parliament and the government. In grudzien 2006, the Kyrgyz parliament voted to adopt new amendments, restoring some of the presidential powers lost w the listopad 2006 constitutional change. By late-wrzesien 2007, both previous versions of the constitution were declared illegal, and the country reverted to the AKAYEV-era 2003 constitution, which was subsequently modified w a flawed referendum initiated by BAKIYEV. The president then dissolved parliament, called dla early elections, and gained control of the new parliament through his newly-created political party, Ak Jol, w grudzien 2007 elections. Current concerns include: privatization of state-owned enterprises, negative trends w democracy and political freedoms, reduction of corruption, improving interethnic relations, and combating terrorism.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 23.08 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $684.4 million


expenditures: $764.1 million (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Bishkek


geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E


time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat dry continental to polar w high Tien Shan; subtropical w southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate w northern foothill zone
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja adopted 5 maj 1993; note - amendment proposed by President Askar AKAYEV and passed w a national referendum on 2 luty 2003 significantly expanded the powers of the president at the expense of the legislature; during large-scale demonstrations w listopad 2006, President BAKIYEV and the opposition negotiated a new constitution granting greater powers to the parliament and the government; amendments added on 30 grudzien 2006 redistributed some power back to the president, but both listopad and grudzien 2006 versions were annulled w wrzesien 2007, and a new version was approved by referendum on 21 pazdziernik 2007; the BAKIYEV-initiated referendum was criticized by Western observers dla voting irregularities, particularly ballot stuffing
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic


conventional short form: Kirgistan


local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy


local short form: Kirgistan


former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
Wspolczynnik zgonow 7.02 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $2.966 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Marie L. YOVANOVITCH


embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016


mailing address: use embassy street address


telephone: [996] (312) 551-241, (517) 777-217


FAX: [996] (312) 551-264
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Zamira SYDYKOVA


chancery: 2360 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 338-5141


FAX: [1] (202) 386-7550


consulate(s): New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Kirgistan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation z Kazachstan; disputes w Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation z Tadzykistan; delimitation of 130 km of border z Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $268.5 million from the US (2005)
Ekonomia Kirgistan is a poor, mountainous country z a predominantly agricultural economy. Cotton, tobacco, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only tobacco and cotton are exported w any quantity. Industrial exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and electricity. Following independence Kirgistan was progressive w carrying out market reforms, such as an improved regulatory system and land reform. Kirgistan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country to be accepted into the Swiat Trade Organization. Much of the government's stock w enterprises has been sold. Drops w production had been severe after the breakup of the Soviet Union w grudzien 1991, but by mid-1995, production began to recover and exports began to increase. The economy is heavily weighted toward gold export and a drop w output at the main Kumtor gold mine sparked a 0.5% decline w Produkt krajowy brutto w 2002 and a 0.6% decline w 2005. Produkt krajowy brutto grew more than 6% w 2007, partly due to higher gold prices internationally. The government made steady strides w controlling its substantial fiscal deficit, nearly closing the gap between revenues and expenditures w 2006, before boosting expenditures more than 20% w 2007. The government and international financial institutions have been engaged w a comprehensive medium-term poverty reduction and economic growth strategy; w 2005, Bishkek agreed to pursue much-needed tax reform and, w 2006, became eligible dla the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) initiative. Progress fighting corruption, further restructuring of domestic industry, and success w attracting foreign investment are keys to future growth.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 8.206 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 2.684 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 15.15 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m


highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Kyrgyz 64.9%, Uzbek 13.8%, Rosjan 12.5%, Dungan 1.1%, Ukrainian 1%, Uygur 1%, other 5.7% (1999 census)
Kurs waluty soms per US dollar - 37.746 (2007), 40.149 (2006), 41.012 (2005), 42.65 (2004), 43.648 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Kurmanbek BAKIYEV (since 14 sierpien 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Igor CHUDINOV (since 24 grudzien 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president; ministers w charge of defense and security, appointed solely by the president


elections: Kurmanbek BAKIYEV elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 10 lipiec 2005 (next scheduled dla 2010); prime minister nominated by the parliamentary party holding more than 50% of the seats; if no such party exists, the president selects the party that will nominate a prime minister


election results: Kurmanbek BAKIYEV elected president; percent of vote - Kurmanbek BAKIYEV 88.6%, Tursunbai BAKIR-UULU 3.9%, other candidates 7.5%
Eksport 2.684 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $1.04 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 3,221 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary cotton, wool, meat, tobacco; gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, hydropower; machinery; shoes
Eksport - partnerzy Szwajcaria 26.1%, Kazachstan 20.4%, Rosja 19.3%, Afganistan 9.4%, Chiny 4.8% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red field z a yellow sun w the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; w the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of the roof of the traditional Kyrgyz yurt
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 31.7%


industry: 19.8%


services: 48.4% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6.5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 41 00 N, 75 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.8%


highest 10%: 24.3% (2003)
Narkotyki limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy dla CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point dla Southwest Asian narcotics bound dla Rosja and the rest of Europe; major consumer of opiates
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $2.509 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 680.9 million cu m (2005)
Import 13,770 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
Import - partnerzy Rosja 38.1%, Chiny 14.4%, Kazachstan 11.7%, US 5.7% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 31 sierpien 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5% (2007 est.)
Przemysl small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 33.38 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 38.51 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 27.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 6.4% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 10,720 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court; Konstytucjaal Court (judges of both the Supreme and Konstytucjaal Courts are appointed dla 10-year terms by the Jorgorku Kenesh on the recommendation of the president; their age limit is 70 years); Higher Court of Arbitration; Local Courts (judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Council on Legal Affairs dla a probationary period of five years, then 10 years)
Sila robocza 2.7 million (2000)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 55%


industry: 15%


services: 30% (2000 est.)
Granica total: 3,878 km


border countries: Chiny 858 km, Kazachstan 1,051 km, Tadzykistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 6.55%


permanent crops: 0.28%


other: 93.17%


note: Kirgistan has the world's largest natural growth walnut forest (2005)
Jezyki Kyrgyz 64.7% (official), Uzbek 13.6%, Rosjan 12.5% (official), Dungun 1%, other 8.2% (1999 census)
System prawny based on French and Rosjan laws; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Supreme Council or Jorgorku Kenesh (90 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held 16 grudzien 2007 (next to be held 2012)


election results: Supreme Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Ak Jol 71, Social Democratic Party 11, KCP 8
Zywotnosc total population: 68.81 years


male: 64.8 years


female: 73.02 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 98.7%


male: 99.3%


female: 98.1% (1999 census)
Lokalizacja Central Asia, west of Chiny
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Wojsko Army, Air Force, National Guard (2005)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.4% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 31 sierpien (1991)
Narodowosc noun: Kirgistani(s)


adjective: Kirgistani
Naturalne zagrozenia NA
Surowce naturalne abundant hydropower; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
Wspolczynnik migracji -2.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 254 km; oil 16 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Ak Jol [Avtandil ARABAYEV, Elmira IBRAIMOVA, Vladimir NIFADYEV, co-chairs]; Ar-Namys (Dignity) Party [Emil ALIYEV]; Asaba (Banner National Revival Party) [Azimbek BEKNAZAROV]; Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAYEV]; Democratic Movement of Kirgistan or DDK [Viktor TCHETRNOMORETS]; Erkindik (Freedom) Party [Topchubek TURGUNALIYEV]; Moya Strana (My Country Party of Action) [Medet SADYRKULOV]; Party of Communists of Kirgistan or KCP [Ishak MASALIYEV]; Party of Justice and Progress [Muratbek IMANALIEV]; Party of Peasants [Esengul ISAKOV]; Republican Party of Labor and Unity [Tabaldy OROZALIYEV]; Sanjira (Tree of Life) [Ednan KARABAYEV]; Social Democratic Party [Almaz ATAMBAYEV]; Union of Democratic Forces [Kubatbek BAIBOLOV]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Adilet Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]; Coalition dla Democracy and Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA]; Interbilim [Asiya SASYKBAYEVA]
Ludnosc 5,284,149 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 40% (2004 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.354% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 3 (plus 10 repeater stations), FM 20, shortwave NA (2006)
Linie kolejowe total: 470 km


broad gauge: 470 km 1.520-m gauge (2006)
Religie Muslim 75%, Rosjan Orthodox 20%, other 5%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.041 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.962 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.641 male(s)/female


total population: 0.962 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is growing; fixed line penetration remains low and concentrated w urban areas


domestic: 4 mobile cellular service providers z growing coverage


international: country code - 996; connections z other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and z other countries by leased connections z Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat; connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line (2006)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 440,400 (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 541,700 (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 7 (1 countrywide and 6 regional stations) (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.68 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 18% (2004 est.)
Drogi wodne 600 km (2007)
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