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Kyrgyzstan (2001)

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Kyrgyzstan 2001 year

Administrative divisions 7 oblastlar (singular - oblast) and 1 city* (singular - shaar); Batken Oblasty, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol)

administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Age structure 0-14 years:
35.03% (male 841,029; female 823,723)

15-64 years:
58.83% (male 1,369,842; female 1,426,522)

65 years and over:
6.14% (male 110,340; female 181,547) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
Airports 50 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
32 (2000 est.)
Area total:
198,500 sq km

191,300 sq km

7,200 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than South Dakota
Background A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, Kyrgyzstan was annexed by Russia in 1864; it achieved independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Current concerns include: privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedoms, inter-ethnic relations, and terrorism.
Birth rate 26.18 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$207.4 million

$238.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Capital Bishkek
Climate dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution adopted 5 May 1993; note - amendment proposed by President AKAYEV and passed in a national referendum on 10 February 1996 significantly expands the powers of the president at the expense of the legislature
Country name conventional long form:
Kyrgyz Republic

conventional short form:

local long form:
Kyrgyz Respublikasy

local short form:

Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
Currency Kyrgyzstani som (KGS)
Death rate 9.13 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $1.4 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador John M. O'KEEFE

171 Prospect Mira, 720016 Bishkek

mailing address:
use embassy street address

[996] (312) 551-241, (517) 777-217

[996] (312) 551-264
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Bakyt ABDRISAYEV

1732 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

[1] (202) 338-5141

[1] (202) 338-5139
Disputes - international territorial dispute with Tajikistan on southwestern boundary in Isfara Valley area; periodic target of Islamic insurgents from Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan
Economic aid - recipient $329.4 million (1995)
Economy - overview Kyrgyzstan is a small, poor, mountainous country with a predominantly agricultural economy. Cotton, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products and exports. Industrial exports include gold, mercury, uranium, and electricity. Kyrgyzstan has been one of the most progressive countries of the former Soviet Union in carrying out market reforms. Following a successful stabilization program, which lowered inflation from 88% in 1994 to 15% for 1997, attention is turning toward stimulating growth. Much of the government's stock in enterprises has been sold. Drops in production had been severe since the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991, but by mid-1995 production began to recover and exports began to increase. Pensioners, unemployed workers, and government workers with salary arrears continue to suffer. Foreign assistance played a substantial role in the country's economic turnaround in 1996-97. Growth was held down to 2.1% in 1998 largely because of the spillover from Russia's economic difficulties, but moved ahead to 3.6% in 1999 and an estimated 5.7% in 2000. The government has adopted a series of measures to combat such persistent problems as excessive external debt, inflation, and inadequate revenue collection.
Electricity - consumption 10.236 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 2.02 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 184 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 12.981 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Kara-Darya 132 m

highest point:
Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m
Environment - current issues water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
Environment - international agreements party to:
Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Kirghiz 52.4%, Russian 18%, Uzbek 12.9%, Ukrainian 2.5%, German 2.4%, other 11.8%
Exchange rates soms per US dollar - 48.701 (January 2001), 47.704 (2000), 39.008 (1999), 20.838 (1998), 17.362 (1997), 12.810 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Askar AKAYEV (since 28 October 1990)

head of government:
Prime Minister Kurmanbek BAKIYEV (since 22 December 2000)

Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; elections last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held November or December 2005); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
Askar AKAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Askar AKAYEV 74%, Omurbek TEKEBAYEV 14%, other candidates 12%; note - election marred by serious irregularities
Exports 2.02 billion kWh (1999)
Exports $482 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities cotton, wool, meat, tobacco; gold, mercury, uranium, hydropower; machinery; shoes
Exports - partners Germany 33%, Russia 16%, Kazakhstan 10%, Uzbekistan 10%, China 6% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kirghiz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of the roof of the traditional Kirghiz yurt
GDP purchasing power parity - $12.6 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


39% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,700 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.7% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 41 00 N, 75 00 E
Geography - note landlocked
Highways total:
18,500 km (including 140 km of expressways)

16,854 km (these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable in all weather)

1,646 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
31.7% (1997)
Illicit drugs limited illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Russia and Western Europe from Southwest Asia
Imports 184 million kWh (1999)
Imports $579 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities oil and gas, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners Russia 18%, Kazakhstan 12%, US 9%, Germany 8%, Uzbekistan 8%, China (1999)
Independence 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 7% (2000 est.)
Industries small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
Infant mortality rate 76.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 18.7% (2000 est.)
International organization participation AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) NA
Irrigated land 9,000 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed for 10-year terms by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president); Constitutional Court; Higher Court of Arbitration
Labor force 1.7 million
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 55%, industry 15%, services 30% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total:
3,878 km

border countries:
China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

45% (1993 est.)

Kyrgyzstan has the world's largest natural growth walnut forest
Languages Kirghiz (Kyrgyz) - official language, Russian - official language

in May 2000, the Kyrgyzstani legislature made Russian an official language, equal in status to Kirghiz
Legal system based on civil law system
Legislative branch bicameral Supreme Council or Zhogorku Kenesh consists of the Assembly of People's Representatives (70 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Legislative Assembly (35 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Assembly of People's Representatives - last held 20 February and 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA February 2005); Legislative Assembly - last held 20 February and 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA February 2005)

election results:
Assembly of People's Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; percent of vote by party - NA; and Legislative Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; note - total seats by party in the Supreme Council were as follows: Union of Democratic Forces 12, Communists 6, My Country Party of Action 4, independents 73, other 10

the legislature became bicameral for the 5 February 1995 elections; the 2000 election results include both the Assembly of People's Representatives and the Legislative Assembly
Life expectancy at birth total population:
63.46 years

59.2 years

67.94 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


96% (1989 est.)
Location Central Asia, west of China
Map references Commonwealth of Independent States
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army, Air and Air Defense, Security Forces, Border Troops
Military expenditures - dollar figure $12 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
1,203,001 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
975,744 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
50,590 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 31 August (1991)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards NA
Natural resources abundant hydropower; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
Net migration rate -2.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines natural gas 200 km
Political parties and leaders Agrarian Labor Party of Kyrgyzstan [Uson S. SYDYKOV]; Agrarian Party of Kyrgyzstan [Arkin ALIYEV]; Ata-Meken Socialist Party or Fatherland [Onurbek TEKEBAYEV]; Banner National Revival Party or ASABA [Chaprashty BAZARBAY]; Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan or DDK [Jypar JEKSHEYEV]; Democratic Women's Party of Kyrgyzstan [T. A. SHAILIYEVA]; Dignity Party [Feliks KULOV]; Erkin Kyrgyzstan Progressive and Democratic Party [Tursunbay Bakir UULU]; Justice Party [Chingiz AYTMATOV]; Movement for the People's Salvation [Jumgalbek AMAMBAYEV]; Mutual Help Movement or Ashar [Jumagazy USUPOV]; My Country of Action [Almazbek ISMANKULOV]; National Unity Democratic Movement or DDNE [Yury RAZGULYAYEV]; Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan or KCP [Absamat M. MASALIYEV]; Party of the Veterans of the War in Afghanistan [leader NA]; Peasant Party [leader NA]; People's Party [Melis ESHIMKANOV]; Poor and Unprotected People's Party [Daniyar USENOV]; Republican Popular Party of Kyrgyzstan [J. SHARSHENALIYEV]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [J. IBRAMOV]; Union of Democratic Forces (composed of Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan or PSD [J. IBRAMOV], Economic Revival Party, and Birimdik Party
Political pressure groups and leaders Council of Free Trade Unions; Kyrgyz Committee on Human Rights [Ramazan DYRYIDAYEV]; National Unity Democratic Movement; Union of Entrepreneurs
Population 4,753,003 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 51% (1997 est.)
Population growth rate 1.44% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)
Radio broadcast stations AM 12 (plus 10 repeater stations), FM 14, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios 520,000 (1997)
Railways total:
370 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines

broad gauge:
370 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)
Religions Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.61 male(s)/female

total population:
0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
poorly developed; about 100,000 unsatisfied applications for household telephones

principally microwave radio relay; one cellular provider, probably limited to Bishkek region

connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik and 1 Intelsat; connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line
Telephones - main lines in use 351,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Television broadcast stations NA (repeater stations throughout the country relay programs from Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkey) (1997)
Terrain peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation
Total fertility rate 3.19 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 6% (1998 est.)
Waterways 600 km (1990)
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