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Kazachstan (2008)

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Kazachstan 2008 roku

 Kazachstan
Podzial administracyjny 14 provinces (oblystar, singular - oblys) and 3 cities* (qala, singular - qalasy); Almaty Oblysy, Almaty Qalasy*, Aqmola Oblysy (Astana), Aqtobe Oblysy, Astana Qalasy*, Atyrau Oblysy, Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oral), Bayqongyr Qalasy*, Mangghystau Oblysy (Aqtau), Ongtustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Shymkent), Pavlodar Oblysy, Qaraghandy Oblysy, Qostanay Oblysy, Qyzylorda Oblysy, Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oskemen), Soltustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Petropavlovsk), Zhambyl Oblysy (Taraz)


note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following w parentheses); w 1995, the Governments of Kazachstan and Rosja entered into an agreement whereby Rosja would lease dla a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Baykonur space launch facilities and the city of Bayqongyr (Baykonur, formerly Leninsk); w 2004, a new agreement extended the lease to 2050
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 22.5% (male 1,758,782/female 1,683,249)


15-64 years: 69.2% (male 5,169,314/female 5,407,661)


65 years and over: 8.3% (male 446,549/female 819,374) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo grain (mostly spring wheat), cotton; livestock
Lotniska 97 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 65


over 3,047 m: 9


2,438 to 3,047 m: 27


1,524 to 2,437 m: 17


914 to 1,523 m: 4


under 914 m: 8 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 32


over 3,047 m: 4


2,438 to 3,047 m: 6


1,524 to 2,437 m: 6


914 to 1,523 m: 4


under 914 m: 12 (2007)
Terytorium total: 2,717,300 sq km


land: 2,669,800 sq km


water: 47,500 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than four times the size of Texas
Tlo historyczne Native Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region w the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Rosja w the 18th century, and Kazachstan became a Soviet Republic w 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazachstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Rosjans, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Niepodleglosc w 1991 caused many of these newcomers to emigrate. Kazachstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states combined, largely due to the country's vast natural resources and a recent history of political stability. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; achieving a sustainable economic growth; diversifying the economy outside the oil, gas, and mining sectors; enhancing Kazachstan's competitiveness; and strengthening relations z neighboring states and other foreign powers.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 16.23 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $21.49 billion


expenditures: $22.31 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Astana


geographic coordinates: 51 10 N, 71 25 E


time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


note: Kazachstan is divided into three time zones
Klimat continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked); note - Kazachstan borders the Aral Sea, now split into two bodies of water (1,070 km), and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)
Konstytucja first post-independence constitution adopted 28 styczen 1993; new constitution adopted by national referendum 30 sierpien 1995
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Kazachstan


conventional short form: Kazachstan


local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy


local short form: Qazaqstan


former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
Wspolczynnik zgonow 9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $92.08 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador John M. ORDWAY


embassy: Ak Bulak 4, Str. 23-22, Building #3, Astana 010010


mailing address: use embassy street address


telephone: [7] (7172) 70-21-00


FAX: [7] (7172) 34-08-90
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Yerlan IDRISOV


chancery: 1401 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036


telephone: [1] (202) 232-5488


FAX: [1] (202) 232-5845


consulate(s): New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Kirgistan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation z Kazachstan; field demarcation of the boundaries z Turkmenistan commenced w 2005, and z Uzbekistan w 2004; demarcation is scheduled to get underway z Rosja w 2007; demarcation z Chiny was completed w 2002; creation of a seabed boundary z Turkmenistan w the Caspian Sea remains under discussion; equidistant seabed treaties have been ratified z Azerbejdzan and Rosja w the Caspian Sea, but no resolution has been made on dividing the water column among any of the littoral states
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $229.2 million (2005)
Ekonomia Kazachstan, the largest of the former Soviet republics w territory, excluding Rosja, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. Kazachstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a growing machine-building sector specializing w construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some defense items. The breakup of the USSR w grudzien 1991 and the collapse w demand dla Kazachstan's traditional heavy industry products resulted w a short-term contraction of the economy, z the steepest annual decline occurring w 1994. In 1995-97, the pace of the government program of economic reform and privatization quickened, resulting w a substantial shifting of assets into the private sector. Kazachstan enjoyed double-digit growth w 2000-01 - 8% or more per year w 2002-07 - thanks largely to its booming energy sector, but also to economic reform, good harvests, and foreign investment. The opening of the Caspian Consortium pipeline w 2001, from western Kazachstan's Tengiz oilfield to the Black Sea, substantially raised export capacity. Kazachstan w 2006 completed the Atasu-Alashankou portion of an oil pipeline to Chiny that is planned to extend from the country's Caspian coast eastward to the Chinese border w future construction. The country has embarked upon an industrial policy designed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the oil sector by developing light industry. The policy aims to reduce the influence of foreign investment and foreign personnel. The government has engaged w several disputes z foreign oil companies over the terms of production agreements; tensions continue. Upward pressure on the local currency continued w 2007 due to massive oil-related foreign-exchange inflows. Aided by strong growth and foreign exchange earnings, Kazachstan aspires to become a regional financial center and has created a banking system comparable to those w Central Europe.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 57.99 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 3.978 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 4.552 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 64.23 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m


highest point: Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated z former defense industries and test ranges scattered throughout the country pose health risks dla humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe w some cities; because the two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted dla irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution w the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol
Grupy etniczne Kazakh (Qazaq) 53.4%, Rosjan 30%, Ukrainian 3.7%, Uzbek 2.5%, German 2.4%, Tatar 1.7%, Uygur 1.4%, other 4.9% (1999 census)
Kurs waluty tenge per US dollar - 122.39 (2007), 126.09 (2006), 132.88 (2005), 136.04 (2004), 149.58 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 luty 1990, elected president 1 grudzien 1991)


head of government: Prime Minister Karim MASIMOV (since 10 styczen 2007); Deputy Prime Ministers Umirzak SHUKEYEV (since 27 sierpien 2007) and Yerbol ORYNBAYEV (since 29 pazdziernik 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held 4 grudzien 2005 (next to be held w 2012); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV 91.1%, Zharmakhan A. TUYAKBAI 6.6%, Alikhan M. BAIMENOV 1.6%


note: President NAZARBAYEV arranged a referendum w 1995 that extended his term of office and expanded his presidential powers: only he can initiate constitutional amendments, appoint and dismiss the government, dissolve Parliament, call referenda at his discretion, and appoint administrative heads of regions and cities
Eksport 3.978 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $44.88 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 7.269 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 1 million bbl/day (2005 est.)
Eksport - towary oil and oil products 58%, ferrous metals 24%, chemicals 5%, machinery 3%, grain, wool, meat, coal (2001)
Eksport - partnerzy Niemcy 12.4%, Rosja 11.6%, Chiny 10.9%, Wlochy 10.5%, Francja 7.6%, Rumunia 4.9% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi sky blue background representing the endless sky and a gold sun z 32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle w the center; on the hoist side is a "national ornamentation" w gold
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 5.7%


industry: 39.5%


services: 54.8% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 9.5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 48 00 N, 68 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; Rosja leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome; w styczen 2004, Kazachstan and Rosja extended the lease to 2050
Ladowiska helikopterow 5 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.3%


highest 10%: 26.5% (2004 est.)
Narkotyki significant illicit cultivation of cannabis dla CIS markets, as well as limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrine); limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point dla Southwest Asian narcotics bound dla Rosja and the rest of Europe; significant consumer of opiates
Import 4.552 billion kWh (2005)
Import $29.91 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 11.09 billion cu m (2005)
Import 113,600 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and equipment 41%, metal products 28%, foodstuffs 8% (2001)
Import - partnerzy Rosja 36.4%, Chiny 19.3%, Niemcy 7.4% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 16 grudzien 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 7.1% (2007 est.)
Przemysl oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 27.41 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 31.94 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 22.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 9.5% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Nawadniane tereny 35,560 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (44 members); Konstytucjaal Council (7 members)
Sila robocza 8.156 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 20%


industry: 30%


services: 50% (2002 est.)
Granica total: 12,012 km


border countries: Chiny 1,533 km, Kirgistan 1,051 km, Rosja 6,846 km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 8.28%


permanent crops: 0.05%


other: 91.67% (2005)
Jezyki Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%, Rosjan (official, used w everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 95% (2001 est.)
System prawny based on Islamic law and Roman law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (47 seats; 7 members are appointed by the president; other members are elected by local assemblies; to serve six-year terms) and the Mazhilis (107 seats; 9 out of the 107 Mazhilis members are elected from the Assembly of the People of Kazachstan, which represents the country's ethnic minorities; members are popularly elected to serve five-year terms)


elections: Senate - (indirect) last held grudzien 2005; next to be held w 2011; Mazhilis - last held 18 sierpien 2007 (next to be held w 2012)


election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Mazhilis - percent of vote by party - Nur-Otan 88.1%, NSDP 4.6%, Ak Zhol 3.3%, Auyl 1.6%, Communist People's Party 1.3%, Patriots Party .8% Ruhaniyat .4%; seats by party - Nur-Otan 98; note - parties must achieve a threshold of 7% of the electorate to qualify dla seats w the Mazhilis
Zywotnosc total population: 67.22 years


male: 61.9 years


female: 72.84 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99.5%


male: 99.8%


female: 99.3% (1999 est.)
Lokalizacja Central Asia, northwest of Chiny; a small portion west of the Ural River w eastern-most Europe
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Flota handlowa total: 5 ships (1000 GRT or over) 30,011 GRT/49,223 DWT


by type: petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 1 (2007)
Wojsko Ground Forces, Naval Force, Air and Air Defense Forces, Republican Guard
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 0.9% (Ministry of Defense expenditures) (FY02)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 16 grudzien (1991)
Narodowosc noun: Kazachstani(s)


adjective: Kazachstani
Naturalne zagrozenia earthquakes w the south, mudslides around Almaty
Surowce naturalne major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
Wspolczynnik migracji -3.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi condensate 658 km; gas 11,082 km; oil 10,376 km; refined products 1,095 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Adilet (Justice) [Maksut NARIKBAYEV, Zeynulla ALSHIMBAYEV, Bakhytbek AKHMETZHAN, Yerkin ONGARBAYEV, Tolegan SYDYKOV] (formerly Democratic Party of Kazachstan); Agrarian and Industrial Union of Workers Block or AIST (Agrarian Party and Civic Party); Ak Zhol Party (Bright Path) [Alikhan BAIMENOV]; Auyl (Village) [Gani KALIYEV]; Communist Party of Kazachstan or KPK [Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN]; Communist People's Party of Kazachstan [Vladislav KOSAREV]; National Social Democratic Party (NSDP)[Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]; Nur-Otan [Bakhytzhan ZHUMAGULOV] (the Agrarian, Asar, and Civic parties merged z Otan); Patriots' Party [Gani KASYMOV]; Rukhaniyat (Spirituality) [Altynshash ZHAGANOVA]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]; Almaty Helsinki Group [Ninel FOKINA]; Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Sergei BELKIN]; For a Just Kazachstan [Bolat ABILOV]; For Fair Elections [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, Sabit ZHUSUPOV, Sergey DUVANOV, Ibrash NUSUPBAYEV]; Kazachstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, executive director]; Pan-National Social Democratic Party of Kazachstan [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAI]; Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman]; Republican Network of International Monitors [Dos KUSHIM]; Transparency International [Sergei ZLOTNIKOV]
Ludnosc 15,284,929 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 19% (2004 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.352% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 60, FM 17, shortwave 9 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 13,700 km


broad gauge: 13,700 km 1.520-m gauge (3,700 km electrified) (2006)
Religie Muslim 47%, Rosjan Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.045 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.956 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.545 male(s)/female


total population: 0.932 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: inherited an outdated telecommunications network from the Soviet era requiring modernization


domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; number of fixed-line connections is gradually increasing and fixed-line teledensity is about 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage is increasing rapidly and subscriptions now exceed 50 per 100 persons


international: country code - 7; international traffic z other former Soviet republics and Chiny carried by landline and microwave radio relay and z other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 2.928 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 7.83 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 12 (plus 9 repeaters) (1998)
Uksztaltowanie terenu extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains w western Siberia to oases and desert w Central Asia
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.89 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 7.1% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 4,000 km (on the Ertis ((Irtysh)) River (80%) and Syr Darya ((Syrdariya)) River) (2006)
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