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Kazakhstan (2001)

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Kazakhstan 2001 year

Administrative divisions 14 oblystar (singular - oblysy) and 3 cities (qala, singular - qalasy)*; Almaty, Almaty*, Aqmola (Astana), Aqtobe, Astana*, Atyrau, Batys Qazaqstan (Oral), Bayqongyr*, Mangghystau (Aqtau; formerly Shevchenko), Ongtustik Qazaqstan (Shymkent), Pavlodar, Qaraghandy, Qostanay, Qyzylorda, Shyghys Qazaqstan (Oskemen; formerly Ust'-Kamenogorsk), Soltustik Qazaqstan (Petropavl), Zhambyl (Taraz; formerly Dzhambul)

administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); in 1995 the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Baykonur space launch facilities and the city of Bayqongyr (Baykonyr, formerly Leninsk)
Age structure 0-14 years:
26.73% (male 2,271,866; female 2,200,078)

15-64 years:
66.03% (male 5,358,535; female 5,688,550)

65 years and over:
7.24% (male 412,761; female 799,513) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products grain (mostly spring wheat), cotton; wool, livestock
Airports 449 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

under 914 m:
3 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
246 (2000 est.)
Area total:
2,717,300 sq km

2,669,800 sq km

47,500 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than four times the size of Texas
Background Native Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Independence has caused many of these newcomers to emigrate. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; and continuing to strengthen relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.
Birth rate 17.3 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$3.1 billion

$3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Capital Astana; note - the government moved from Almaty to Astana in December 1998
Climate continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
Coastline 0 km (landlocked); note - Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea, now split into two bodies of water (1,070 km), and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)
Constitution adopted by national referendum 30 August 1995; first post-independence constitution was adopted 28 January 1993
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Kazakhstan

conventional short form:

local long form:
Qazaqstan Respublikasy

local short form:

Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
Currency tenge (KZT)
Death rate 10.61 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $12.5 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard H. JONES

99/97A Furmanova Street, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan 480091

mailing address:
American Embassy Almaty, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7030

[7] (3272) 63-39-21, 50-76-23, 50-76-27 (emergency number)

[7] (3272) 63-38-83, 50-76-24
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Kanat SAUDABAYEV

1401 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036

[1] (202) 232-5488

[1] (202) 232-5845

New York
Disputes - international Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan
Economic aid - recipient $409.6 million (1995)
Economy - overview Kazakhstan, the second largest of the former Soviet republics in territory, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves as well as plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also is a large agricultural - livestock and grain - producer. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a growing machine-building sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some defense items. The breakup of the USSR in December 1991 and the collapse of demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry products resulted in a short-term contraction of the economy, with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. In 1995-97, the pace of the government program of economic reform and privatization quickened, resulting in a substantial shifting of assets into the private sector. The Caspian Pipeline Consortium agreement to build a new pipeline from western Kazakhstan's Tengiz oil field to the Black Sea increases prospects for substantially larger oil exports in several years. Kazakhstan's economy again turned downward in 1998 with a 2% decline in GDP due to slumping oil prices and the August financial crisis in Russia. The recovery of international oil prices in 1999, combined with a well-timed tenge devaluation and a bumper grain harvest, pulled the economy out of recession in 2000. Astana has embarked upon an industrial policy designed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the oil sector by developing light industry.
Electricity - consumption 44.132 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 200 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 3.077 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 44.36 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Vpadina Kaundy -132 m

highest point:
Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m
Environment - current issues radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with its former defense industries and test ranges are found throughout the country and pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices
Environment - international agreements party to:
Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified:
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Kazakh (Qazaq) 53.4%, Russian 30%, Ukrainian 3.7%, Uzbek 2.5%, German 2.4%, Uighur 1.4%, other 6.6% (1999 census)
Exchange rates tenge per US dollar - 145.09 (January 2001), 142.13 (2000), 119.52 (1999), 78.30 (1998), 75.44 (1997), 67.30 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990, elected president 1 December 1991)

head of government:
Prime Minister Kazymzhomart TOKAYEV (since 2 October 1999)

Council of Ministers appointed by the president

president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 10 January 1999, a year before it was previously scheduled (next to be held NA 2006); note - President NAZARBAYEV's previous term had been extended to 2000 by a nationwide referendum held 30 April 1995; prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV 81.7%, Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN 12.1%, Gani KASYMOV 4.7%, other 1.5%

President NAZARBAYEV expanded his presidential powers by decree: only he can initiate constitutional amendments, appoint and dismiss the government, dissolve Parliament, call referenda at his discretion, and appoint administrative heads of regions and cities
Exports 200 million kWh (1999)
Exports $8.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities oil 40%, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery, chemicals, grain, wool, meat, coal
Exports - partners EU 23%, Russia 20%, China 8% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description sky blue background representing the endless sky and a gold sun with 32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the center; on the hoist side is a "national ornamentation" in gold
GDP purchasing power parity - $85.6 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


60% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $5,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 10.5% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 48 00 N, 68 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; Russia leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome
Highways total:
NA km

150,000 km (these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable in all weather) (2000)

NA km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
26.3% (1996)
Illicit drugs significant illicit cultivation of cannabis and limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrone); limited government eradication program; cannabis consumed largely in the CIS; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Russia, North America, and Western Europe from Southwest Asia; developing heroin addiction problem
Imports 3.077 billion kWh (1999)
Imports $6.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and parts, industrial materials, oil and gas, vehicles
Imports - partners Russia 37%, US, Uzbekistan, Turkey, UK, Germany, Ukraine, South Korea (1999)
Independence 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 14.9% (2000 est.)
Industries oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and steel, nonferrous metal, tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials
Infant mortality rate 59.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 13.4% (2000 est.)
International organization participation AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) NA
Irrigated land 22,000 sq km (1996 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (44 members); Constitutional Council (7 members)
Labor force 8.8 million (1997)
Labor force - by occupation industry 27%, agriculture 23%, services 50% (1996)
Land boundaries total:
12,012 km

border countries:
China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846 km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

16% (1996 est.)
Languages Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 40%, Russian (official, used in everyday business) 66%
Legal system based on civil law system
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (47 seats; 7 senators are appointed by the president; other members are popularly elected, two from each of the former oblasts and the former capital of Almaty, to serve six-year terms) and the Majilis (67 seats; the addition of 10 "Party List" seats brings the total to 77; members are popularly elected to serve five-year terms); note - with the oblasts being reduced to 14, the Senate will eventually be reduced to 37; a number of Senate seats come up for reelection every two years

Senate - (indirect) last held 17 September 1999 (next to be held NA 2001); Majilis - last held 10 and 24 October and 26 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; 16 seats up for election in 1999, candidates nominated by local councils; Majilis - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Otan 23, Civic Party 13, Communist Party 3, Agrarian Party 3, People's Cooperative Party 1, independents 34; note - most independent candidates are affiliated with parastatal enterprises and other pro-government institutions
Life expectancy at birth total population:
63.29 years

57.87 years

68.97 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


96% (1989 est.)
Location Central Asia, northwest of China
Map references Commonwealth of Independent States
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches General Purpose Forces (Army), Air Force, Border Guards, Navy, Republican Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $322 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.5% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
4,509,179 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
3,598,859 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
163,628 (2001 est.)
National holiday Republic Day, 25 October (1990)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards earthquakes in the south, mudslides around Almaty
Natural resources major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
Net migration rate -6.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 2,850 km; refined products 1,500 km; natural gas 3,480 km (1992)
Political parties and leaders Agrarian Party [Romin MADENOV]; Alash [Soverkazhy AKATAYEV]; AZAMAT Movement [Petr SVOIK, Murat AUEZOV, and Galym ABILSIITOV, cochairmen]; Civic Party [Azat PERUASHEV, first secretary]; Communist Party or KPK [Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN, first secretary]; Forum of Democratic Forces [Nurbulat MASANOV, Deputy Chairman of the Republican People's Party of Kazakhstan (RNPK); Amirzhan KOSANOV, RNPK activist; Seidakhmet KUTTYKADAM, Orleu Movement; cochairmen]; Labor and Worker's Movement [Madel ISMAILOV, chairman]; Orleu Movement [Seidakhmet KUTTYKADAM]; Otan [Sergei TERESCHENKO, chairman]; Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman]; People's Congress of Kazakhstan of NKK [Olzhas SULEIMENOV, chairman]; People's Cooperative Party [Umirzak SARSENOV]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV]; Republican People's Party of Kazakhstan or RNPK [Akezhan KAZHEGELDIN]
Political pressure groups and leaders Kazakhstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, executive director]
Population 16,731,303 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 35% (1999 est.)
Population growth rate 0.03% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev), Oskemen (Ust-Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk)
Radio broadcast stations AM 60, FM 17, shortwave 9 (1998)
Radios 6.47 million (1997)
Railways total:
14,400 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines

broad gauge:
14,400 km 1.520-m gauge (3,299 km electrified) (1997)
Religions Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.52 male(s)/female

total population:
0.93 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
service is poor; equipment antiquated

intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; mobile cellular systems are available in most of Kazakhstan

international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay; with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat
Telephones - main lines in use 1.818 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 11,202 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 12 (plus nine repeaters) (1998)
Terrain extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oases and desert in Central Asia
Total fertility rate 2.07 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 13.7% (1998 est.)
Waterways 3,900 km

on the Syrdariya (Syr Darya) and Ertis (Irtysh) rivers
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