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Izrael (2008)

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Izrael 2008 roku

Podzial administracyjny 6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 26.1% (male 858,246/female 818,690)

15-64 years: 64.2% (male 2,076,649/female 2,046,343)

65 years and over: 9.8% (male 269,483/female 357,268) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo citrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products
Lotniska 53 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 30

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 6 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 23

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 20 (2007)
Terytorium total: 20,770 sq km

land: 20,330 sq km

water: 440 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than New Jersey
Tlo historyczne Following Swiat War II, the British withdrew from their mandate of Palestine, and the UN partitioned the area into Arab and Jewish states, an arrangement rejected by the Arabs. Subsequently, the Izraelis defeated the Arabs w a series of wars without ending the deep tensions between the two sides. The territories Izrael occupied since the 1967 war are not included w the Izrael country profile, unless otherwise noted. On 25 kwiecien 1982, Izrael withdrew from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979 Izrael-Egipt Peace Treaty. In keeping z the framework established at the Madrid Conference w pazdziernik 1991, bilateral negotiations were conducted between Izrael and Palestinian representatives and Syria to achieve a permanent settlement. Izrael and Palestinian officials signed on 13 wrzesien 1993 a Declaration of Principles (also known as the "Oslo Accords") guiding an interim period of Palestinian self-rule. Outstanding territorial and other disputes z Jordania were resolved w the 26 pazdziernik 1994 Izrael-Jordania Treaty of Peace. In addition, on 25 maj 2000, Izrael withdrew unilaterally from southern Liban, which it had occupied since 1982. In kwiecien 2003, US President BUSH, working w conjunction z the EU, UN, and Rosja - the "Quartet" - took the lead w laying out a roadmap to a final settlement of the conflict by 2005, based on reciprocal steps by the two parties leading to two states, Izrael and a democratic Palestine. However, progress toward a permanent status agreement was undermined by Izraeli-Palestinian violence between wrzesien 2003 and luty 2005. An Izraeli-Palestinian agreement reached at Sharm al-Sheikh w luty 2005, along z an internally-brokered Palestinian ceasefire, significantly reduced the violence. In the summer of 2005, Izrael unilaterally disengaged from the Gaza, evacuating settlers and its military while retaining control over most points of entry into the Gaza. The election of HAMAS w styczen 2006 to head the Palestinian Legislative Council froze relations between Izrael and the Palestinian Authority (PA). Ehud OLMERT became prime minister w marzec 2006; following an Izraeli military operation w Gaza w czerwiec-lipiec 2006 and a 34-day conflict z Hizballah w Liban w czerwiec-sierpien 2006, he shelved plans to unilaterally evacuate from most of the Zachodni Brzeg. OLMERT w czerwiec 2007 resumed talks z the PA after HAMAS seized control of the Gaza and PA President Mahmoud ABBAS formed a new government without HAMAS.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 17.71 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $57.08 billion

expenditures: $57.81 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Jerusalem

geographic coordinates: 31 46 N, 35 14 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday w marzec; ends the Sunday between the holidays of Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur

note: Izrael proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital w 1950, but the US, like nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy w Tel Aviv
Klimat temperate; hot and dry w southern and eastern desert areas
Linia brzegowa 273 km
Konstytucja no formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the Basic Laws of the parliament (Knesset), and the Izraeli citizenship law; note - since maj 2003 the Konstytucja, Law, and Justice Committee of the Knesset has been working on a draft constitution
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: State of Izrael

conventional short form: Izrael

local long form: Medinat Yisra'el

local short form: Yisra'el
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.17 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $87.43 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Richard H. JONES

embassy: 71 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv 63903

mailing address: PSC 98, Box 29, APO AE 09830

telephone: [972] (3) 519-7575

FAX: [972] (3) 516-4390

consulate(s) general: Jerusalem; note - an independent US mission, established w 1928, whose members are not accredited to a foreign government
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Salai MERIDOR

chancery: 3514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 364-5500

FAX: [1] (202) 364-5607

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Zachodni Brzeg and Gaza are Izraeli-occupied z current status subject to the Izraeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Izrael continues construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the Zachodni Brzeg; Izrael withdrew its settlers and military from the Gaza and from four settlements w the Zachodni Brzeg w sierpien 2005; Golan Heights is Izraeli-occupied (Liban claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights); since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) headquartered w Jerusalem monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel w the region
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $240 million from US (FY06)
Ekonomia Izrael has a technologically advanced market economy z substantial, though diminishing, government participation. It depends on imports of crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Izrael has intensively developed its agricultural and industrial sectors over the past 20 years. Izrael imports substantial quantities of grain, but is largely self-sufficient w other agricultural products. Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, and agricultural products (fruits and vegetables) are the leading exports. Izrael usually posts sizable trade deficits, which are covered by large transfer payments from abroad and by foreign loans. Roughly half of the government's external debt is owed to the US, its major source of economic and military aid. Izrael's Produkt krajowy brutto, after contracting slightly w 2001 and 2002 due to the Palestinian conflict and troubles w the high-technology sector, has grown by about 5% per year since 2003. The economy grew an estimated 5.4% w 2007, the fastest pace since 2000. The government's prudent fiscal policy and structural reforms over the past few years have helped to induce strong foreign investment, tax revenues, and private consumption, setting the economy on a solid growth path.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 43.28 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 1.663 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 46.85 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m

highest point: Har Meron 1,208 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy limited arable land and natural fresh water resources pose serious constraints; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne Jewish 76.4% (of which Izrael-born 67.1%, Europe/America-born 22.6%, Africa-born 5.9%, Asia-born 4.2%), non-Jewish 23.6% (mostly Arab) (2004)
Kurs waluty new Izraeli shekels per US dollar - 4.14 (2007), 4.4565 (2006), 4.4877 (2005), 4.482 (2004), 4.5541 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Shimon PERES (since 15 lipiec 2007)

head of government: Prime Minister Ehud OLMERT (since maj 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Tzipora "Tzipi" LIVNI (since maj 2006); Ehud OLMERT won the right to lead the government when his Kadima Party won 29 seats w elections held on 28 marzec 2006

cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset

elections: president is largely a ceremonial role and is elected by the Knesset dla a seven-year term (one-term limit); election last held 13 czerwiec 2007 (next to be held w 2014 but can be called earlier); following legislative elections, the president assigns a Knesset member - traditionally the leader of the largest party - the task of forming a governing coalition

note: government coalition - Kadima, Labor Party, GIL (Pensioners), SHAS,and Yisrael Beiteinu

election results: Shimon PERES elected president; number of votes w first round - Shimon PERES 58, Reuven RIVLIN 37, Colette AVITAL 21; PERES elected president w second round z 86 votes (unopposed)
Eksport 1.663 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $48.6 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 75,980 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary machinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and apparel
Eksport - partnerzy US 38.4%, Belgia 6.5%, Hong Kong 5.9% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi white z a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 2.4%

industry: 30%

services: 67.6% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5.1% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 31 30 N, 34 45 E
Polozenie geograficzne there are 242 Izraeli settlements and civilian land use sites w the Zachodni Brzeg, 42 w the Izraeli-occupied Golan Heights, 0 w the Gaza, and 29 w East Jerusalem (sierpien 2005 est.); Sea of Galilee is an important freshwater source
Ladowiska helikopterow 3 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.4%

highest 10%: 28.3% (2005)
Narkotyki increasingly concerned about ecstasy, cocaine, and heroin abuse; drugs arrive w country from Liban and, increasingly, from Jordania; money-laundering center
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $52.8 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 315,200 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary raw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, grain, consumer goods
Import - partnerzy US 12.4%, Belgia 8.2%, Niemcy 6.7%, Szwajcaria 5.9%, UK 5.1%, Chiny 5.1% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 14 maj 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 4.1% (2007 est.)
Przemysl high-technology projects (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics, fiber optics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, construction, metals products, chemical products, plastics, diamond cutting, textiles, footwear
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 6.75 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 7.45 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 0.4% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji BIS, BSEC (observer), CERN (observer), EBRD, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, OAS (observer), OPCW (signatory), OSCE (partner), PCA, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 1,940 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (justices appointed by Judicial Selection Committee - made up of all three branches of the government; mandatory retirement age is 70)
Sila robocza 2.88 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 18.5%, industry 23.7%, services 50%, other 7.8% (2002)
Granica total: 1,017 km

border countries: Egipt 266 km, Gaza 51 km, Jordania 238 km, Liban 79 km, Syria 76 km, Zachodni Brzeg 307 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 15.45%

permanent crops: 3.88%

other: 80.67% (2005)
Jezyki Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially dla Arab minority, English most commonly used foreign language
System prawny mixture of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and, w personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim legal systems; w grudzien 1985, Izrael informed the UN Secretariat that it would no longer accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Knesset (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 28 marzec 2006 (next scheduled to be held w 2010 but can be called earlier)

election results: percent of vote by party - Kadima 22%, Labor 15.1%, SHAS 9.5%, Likud 9%, Yisrael Beiteinu 9%, NU/NRP 7.1%, GIL 5.9%, Torah and Shabbat Judaism 4.7%, Meretz-YAHAD 3.8%, United Arab List 3%, Balad 2.3%, HADASH 2.7%, other 5.9%; seats by party - Kadima 29, Labor 19, Likud 12, SHAS 12, Yisrael Beiteinu 11, NU/NRP 9, GIL 7, Torah and Shabbat Judaism 6, Meretz-YAHAD 5, United Arab List 4, Balad 3, HADASH 3
Zywotnosc total population: 79.59 years

male: 77.44 years

female: 81.85 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.1%

male: 98.5%

female: 95.9% (2004 est.)
Lokalizacja Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egipt and Liban
Lokalizacja na mapie Middle East
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 18 ships (1000 GRT or over) 716,382 GRT/845,053 DWT

by type: cargo 2, container 16

registered w other countries: 51 (Bermudy 3, Cypr 4, Honduras 1, North Korea 1, Liberia 9, Malta 21, Panama 2, Slowacja 6, St Vincent and The Grenadines 4) (2007)
Wojsko Izrael Defense Forces (IDF), Izrael Naval Forces (INF), Izrael Air Force (IAF) (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 7.3% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 14 maj (1948); note - Izrael declared independence on 14 maj 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur w kwiecien or maj
Narodowosc noun: Izraeli(s)

adjective: Izraeli
Naturalne zagrozenia sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes
Surowce naturalne timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 160 km; oil 442 km; refined products 261 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Democratic Front dla Peace and Equality (HADASH) [Muhammad BARAKA]; GIL (Pensioners) [Rafael "Rafi" EITAN]; Kadima [Ehud OLMERT]; Labor Party [Ehud BARAK]; Likud [Binyamin NETANYAHU]; Meretz-YAHAD [Yossi BEILIN]; National Democratic Assembly (Balad) [Jamal ZAHALKA]; National Union (NU)/National Religious Party (NRP) [Binyamin ELON]; SHAS [Eliyahu YISHAI]; Torah and Shabbat Judaism [Yaakov LITZMAN]; United Arab List [Ibrahim SARSOUR]; Yisrael Beiteinu [Avigdor LIEBERMAN]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Peace Now [Yariv OPPENHEIMER, Secretary General] supports territorial concessions w the Zachodni Brzeg and Gaza; YESHA Council of Settlements [Danny DAYAN, Chairman] promotes settler interests and opposes territorial compromise; B'Tselem [Jessica MONTELL, Executive Director] monitors human rights abuses
Ludnosc 6,426,679

note: includes about 187,000 Izraeli settlers w the Zachodni Brzeg, about 20,000 w the Izraeli-occupied Golan Heights, and fewer than 177,000 w East Jerusalem (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 21.6%

note: Izrael's poverty line is $7.30 per person per day (2005)
Przyrost naturalny 1.154% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 23, FM 15, shortwave 2 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 853 km

standard gauge: 853 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
Religie Jewish 76.4%, Muslim 16%, Arab Christians 1.7%, other Christian 0.4%, Druze 1.6%, unspecified 3.9% (2004)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.048 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.015 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.754 male(s)/female

total population: 0.994 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: most highly developed system w the Middle East although not the largest

domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital; four privately-owned mobile-cellular service providers z countrywide coverage; mobile-cellular teledensity is more than 130 per 100 persons

international: country code - 972; submarine cables provide links to Europe, Cypr, and parts of the Middle East; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 3.005 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 8.404 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 17 (plus 36 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu Negev desert w the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordania Rift Valley
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.38 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 7.6% (2007 est.)
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