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Israel (2002)

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Israel 2002 year

Administrative divisions 6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv
Age structure 0-14 years: 27.1% (male 837,491; female 798,695)

15-64 years: 63% (male 1,905,677; female 1,889,525)

65 years and over: 9.9% (male 257,066; female 341,075) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products citrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products
Airports 54 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 28

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 11

under 914 m: 4 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 24

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 20 (2002)
Area total: 20,770 sq km

land: 20,330 sq km

water: 440 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than New Jersey
Background Following World War II, the British withdrew from their mandate of Palestine, and the UN partitioned the area into Arab and Jewish states, an arrangement rejected by the Arabs. Subsequently, the Israelis defeated the Arabs in a series of wars without ending the deep tensions between the two sides. The territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war are not included in the Israel country profile, unless otherwise noted. On 25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan were resolved in the 26 October 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace. In addition, on 25 May 2000, Israel withdrew unilaterally from southern Lebanon, which it had occupied since 1982. In keeping with the framework established at the Madrid Conference in October 1991, bilateral negotiations were conducted between Israel and Palestinian representatives (from the Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip) and Syria, to achieve a permanent settlement. But progress toward a permanent status agreement has been undermined by the outbreak of Palestinian-Israeli violence since September 2000.
Birth rate 18.91 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $40 billion

expenditures: $42.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Jerusalem; note - Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950, but the US, like nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv
Climate temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas
Coastline 273 km
Constitution no formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the Basic Laws of the parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law
Country name conventional long form: State of Israel

conventional short form: Israel

local long form: Medinat Yisra'el

local short form: Yisra'el
Currency new Israeli shekel (ILS)
Death rate 6.21 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $42.8 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel C. KURTZER

embassy: 71 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv

mailing address: PSC 98, Box 29, APO AE 09830

telephone: [972] (3) 519-7457/7369/7454/7458/7453

FAX: [972] (3) 517-4390

consulate(s) general: Jerusalem; note - an independent US mission, established in 1928, whose members are not accredited to a foreign government
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel AYALON

chancery: 3514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 364-5500

FAX: [1] (202) 364-3607

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco
Disputes - international West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied (Lebanon claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights)
Economic aid - recipient NA
Economy - overview Israel has a technologically advanced market economy with substantial government participation. It depends on imports of crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has intensively developed its agricultural and industrial sectors over the past 20 years. Israel is largely self-sufficient in food production except for grains. Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, and agricultural products (fruits and vegetables) are the leading exports. Israel usually posts sizable current account deficits, which are covered by large transfer payments from abroad and by foreign loans. Roughly half of the government's external debt is owed to the US, which is its major source of economic and military aid. The influx of Jewish immigrants from the former USSR during the period 1989-99 coupled with the opening of new markets at the end of the Cold War, energized Israel's economy, which grew rapidly in the early 1990s. But growth began moderating in 1996 when the government imposed tighter fiscal and monetary policies and the immigration bonus petered out. Growth was a strong 6.4% in 2000. But the bitter Israeli-Palestinian conflict, increasingly the declines in the high-technology and tourist sectors, and fiscal austerity measures in the face of growing inflation have led to declines in GDP in 2001 and 2002.
Electricity - consumption 34.897 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 1.27 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 12 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 38.876 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m

highest point: Har Meron 1,208 m
Environment - current issues limited arable land and natural fresh water resources pose serious constraints; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Ethnic groups Jewish 80.1% (Europe/America-born 32.1%, Israel-born 20.8%, Africa-born 14.6%, Asia-born 12.6%), non-Jewish 19.9% (mostly Arab) (1996 est.)
Exchange rates new Israeli shekels per US dollar - 4.2757 (December 2001), 4.2057 (2001), 4.0773 (2000), 4.1397 (1999), 3.8001 (1998), 3.4494 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President Moshe KATSAV (since 31 July 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Ariel SHARON (since 7 March 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset

elections: president elected by the Knesset for a seven-year term; election last held 31 July 2000 (next to be held NA 2007); following legislative elections, the president assigns a Knesset member - traditionally the leader of the largest party - the task of forming a governing coalition; election last held 28 January 2003 (next to be held fall of 2007)

election results: Moshe KATSAV elected president by the 120-member Knesset with a total of 60 votes, other candidate, Shimon PERES, received 57 votes (there were three abstentions); Ariel SHARON continues as prime minister after Likud Party victory in January 2003 Knesset elections; Likud won 38 seats and then formed coalition government with Shinui, the National Religious Party, and the National Union
Exports 1.27 billion kWh (2000)
Exports $28 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and apparel
Exports - partners US 42.8%, Benelux 7.4%, Hong Kong 6.8%, Germany 4.8%, UK 4.8%, Japan 3.2% (2001)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag
GDP purchasing power parity - $122 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3%

industry: 30%

services: 67% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $19,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate -1.1% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 31 30 N, 34 45 E
Geography - note there are 242 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the West Bank, 42 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 25 in the Gaza Strip, and 29 in East Jerusalem (February 2002 est.); Sea of Galilee is an important freshwater source
Heliports 3 (2002)
Highways total: 15,965 km

paved: 15,965 km (including 56 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (1998 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 28% (1992) (1997)
Illicit drugs increasingly concerned about cocaine and heroin abuse; drugs arrive in country from Lebanon and increasingly Jordan
Imports 12 million kWh (2000)
Imports $30.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities raw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, consumer goods
Imports - partners US 23.5%, Benelux 10.2%, Germany 7.9%, uk 6.7%, Switzerland 6.0%, Italy 5.2% (2001)
Independence 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Industrial production growth rate -1.5% (2002 est.)
Industries high-technology projects (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, diamond cutting
Infant mortality rate 7.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.7% (2002 est.)
International organization participation BSEC (observer), CCC, CE (observer), CERN (observer), EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OAS (observer), OPCW (signatory), OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 21 (2000)
Irrigated land 1,990 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (justices appointed for life by the president)
Labor force 2.4 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation public services 31%, manufacturing 20%, finance and business 13%, commerce 13%, construction 8%, personal and other services 6%, transport, storage, and communications 6%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3% (1996) (1996)
Land boundaries total: 1,017 km

border countries: Egypt 266 km, Gaza Strip 51 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km
Land use arable land: 17.02%

permanent crops: 4.17%

other: 78.81% (1998 est.)
Languages Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab minority, English most commonly used foreign language
Legal system mixture of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and, in personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim legal systems; in December 1985, Israel informed the UN Secretariat that it would no longer accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Knesset or parliament (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 27 January 2003 (next to be held NA 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - Likud Party 29.4%, Labor 14.5%, Shinui 12.3%, Shas 8.2%, National Union 5.5%, Meretz 5.2%, United Torah Judaism 4.3%, National Religious Party 4.2%, Democratic Front for Peace and Equality 3.0%, One Nation 2.8%, National Democratic Alliance 2.3%, YBA 2.2%, United Arab List 2.1%, Green Leaf Party 1.2%, Herut 1.2%, other 1.6%; seats by party - Likud 38, Labor 19, Shinui 15, Shas 11, National Union 7, Meretz 6, National Religious Party 6, United Torah Judaism 5, Democratic Front for Peace and Equality 3, One Nation 3, National Democratic Alliance 3, YBA 2, United Arab List 2
Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.86 years

male: 76.82 years

female: 81.01 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95%

male: 97%

female: 93% (1992 est.)
Location Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon
Map references Middle East
Maritime claims continental shelf: to depth of exploitation

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 16 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 595,319 GRT/704,544 DWT

ships by type: container 15, roll on/roll off 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (includes ground, naval, and air components with Air Defense Forces), Pioneer Fighting Youth (Nahal); note - historically there have been no separate Israeli military services
Military expenditures - dollar figure $8.97 billion (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 8.75% (FY02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,542,835

females age 15-49: 1,499,830 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,262,973

females age 15-49: 1,223,939 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 51,666

females: 49,207 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 14 May (1948); note - Israel declared independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in April or May
Nationality noun: Israeli(s)

adjective: Israeli
Natural hazards sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes
Natural resources timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand
Net migration rate 2.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 708 km; petroleum products 290 km; natural gas 89 km
Political parties and leaders Center Party [Dan MERIDOR]; Democratic Front for Peace and Equality (Hadash) [Muhammad BARAKA]; Democratic Movement [Roman BRONFMAN]; Gesher [David LEVI]; Herut [michael KLEINER]; Labor Party [Binyamin BEN-ELIEZER]; Likud Party [Ariel SHARON]; Meimad [Rabbi Michael MELCHIOR]; Meretz [Yossi SARID]; National Democratic Alliance (Balad) [Azmi BISHARA]; National Religious Party [Yitzhak LEVY]; National Union [Benyamin ELON] (includes Tekuma and Moledet); One Israel [Ra'anan COHEN]; One Nation [Amir PERETZ]; Shas [Eliyahu YISHAI]; Shinui [Tommy LAPID]; United Arab List [Abd al-Malik DAHAMSHAH]; United Torah Judaism [Meir PORUSH]; Yisra'el Ba'Aliya or YBA [Natan SHARANSKY]; Yisra'el Beiteinu [Avigdor LIEBERMAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders Israeli nationalists advocating Jewish settlement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip; Peace Now supports territorial concessions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip; Yesha (settler) Council promotes settler interests and opposes territorial compromise; B'Tselem monitors human rights abuses
Population 6,029,529 (July 2002 est.)

note: includes about 187,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank, about 20,000 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, more than 5,000 in the Gaza Strip, and fewer than 177,000 in East Jerusalem (February 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.48% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Ashdod, Ashqelon, Elat (Eilat), Hadera, Haifa, Tel Aviv-Yafo
Radio broadcast stations AM 23, FM 15, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios 3.07 million (1997)
Railways total: 647 km

standard gauge: 647 km 1.435-m gauge (2001)
Religions Jewish 80.1%, Muslim 14.6% (mostly Sunni Muslim), Christian 2.1%, other 3.2% (1996 est.)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: most highly developed system in the Middle East although not the largest

domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital

international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 2.8 million (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2.5 million (1999)
Television broadcast stations 17 (plus 36 low-power repeaters) (1995)
Terrain Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley
Total fertility rate 2.54 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 10.4% (2002 est.)
Waterways none
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