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Irak (2003)

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Irak 2003 roku

Podzial administracyjny 18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', majsan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 40.7% (male 5,103,669; female 4,946,443)

15-64 years: 56.3% (male 7,033,268; female 6,855,644)

65 years and over: 3% (male 348,790; female 395,499) (2003 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep
Lotniska 150 (2002); note - unknown number were damaged during the marzec-kwiecien 2003 war
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 77

over 3,047 m: 21

2,438 to 3,047 m: 36

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 9 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 73

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 24

914 to 1,523 m: 28

under 914 m: 11 (2002)
Terytorium total: 437,072 sq km

land: 432,162 sq km

water: 4,910 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than twice the size of Idaho
Tlo historyczne Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Irak was occupied by Britain during the course of Swiat War I; w 1920, it was declared a League of Nations mandate under UK administration. In stages over the next dozen years, Irak attained its independence as a kingdom w 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed w 1958, but w actuality a series of military strongmen have ruled the country since then, the latest being SADDAM Husayn. Territorial disputes z Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In sierpien 1990, Irak seized Kuwejt, but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of styczen-luty 1991. Following Kuwejt's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Irak to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Continued Iraki noncompliance z UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years resulted w the US-led invasion of Irak w marzec 2003 and the ouster of the SADDAM Husayn regime. Coalition forces remain w Irak, helping to restore degraded infrastructure and facilitating the establishment of a freely elected government.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 33.66 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budzet revenues: $NA

expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Stolica Baghdad
Klimat mostly desert; mild to cool winters z dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters z occasionally heavy snows that melt w early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding w central and southern Irak
Linia brzegowa 58 km
Konstytucja in transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Irak

conventional short form: Irak

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Irakiyah

local short form: Al Irak
Waluta Iraki dinar (IQD)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.84 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $120 billion (2002 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA in transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA in transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje despite restored diplomatic relations w 1990, disputes z Iran over maritime and land boundaries, navigation channel, and other issues from eight-year war persist; land and Shatt al Arab boundary demarcation put an end to claims to Kuwejt and to Bubiyan and Warbah islands, but no maritime boundary exists z Kuwejt w the Persian Gulf; Irak protests Turcja's hydrological projects to regulate the Tigris and Euphrates rivers upstream
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $327.5 million (1995)
Ekonomia Irak's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s financial problems caused by massive expenditures w the eight-year war z Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran led the government to implement austerity measures, borrow heavily, and later reschedule foreign debt payments; Irak suffered economic losses from the war of at least $100 billion. After hostilities ended w 1988, oil exports gradually increased z the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities. Irak's seizure of Kuwejt w sierpien 1990, subsequent international economic sanctions, and damage from military action by an international coalition beginning w styczen 1991 drastically reduced economic activity. Although government policies supporting large military and internal security forces and allocating resources to key supporters of the regime have hurt the economy, implementation of the UN's oil-for-food program beginning w grudzien 1996 helped improve conditions dla the average Iraki citizen. Irak was allowed to export limited amounts of oil w exchange dla food, medicine, and some infrastructure spare parts. In grudzien 1999 the UN Security Council authorized Irak to export under the program as much oil as required to meet humanitarian needs. Oil exports have recently been more than three-quarters prewar level. However, 28% of Irak's export revenues under the program have been deducted to meet UN Compensation Fund and UN administrative expenses. The drop w Produkt krajowy brutto w 2001-02 was largely the result of the global economic slowdown and lower oil prices. Per capita food imports increased significantly, while medical supplies and health care services steadily improved. Per capita output and living standards were still well below the prewar level, but any estimates have a wide range of error. The military victory of the US-led coalition w marzec-kwiecien 2003 resulted w the shutdown of much of the central economic administrative structure and the loss of a comparatively small amount of capital plant.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 33.49 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 36.01 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel: 98.4%

hydro: 1.6%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: unamed peak 3,611 m; note - this peak is not Gundah Zhur 3,607 m or Kuh-e Hajji-Ebrahim 3,595 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Marsh Arabs, who inhabited these areas dla thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers system contingent upon agreements z upstream riparian Turcja; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Grupy etniczne Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%
Kurs waluty Iraki dinars per US dollar - 0.31 (2002), 0.31 (2001), 0.31 (2000), 0.31 (1999), 0.31 (1998), note: fixed official rate since 1982; market rate subject to wide fluctuations
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: w transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Eksport 0 kWh (2001)
Eksport $13 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Eksport NA (2001)
Eksport - towary crude oil
Eksport - partnerzy US 40.9%, Kanada 8.2%, Francja 8.2%, Jordania 7.5%, Holandia 6.4%, Wlochy 5.4%, Maroko 4.7%, Hiszpania 4.4% (2002)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black z three green five-pointed stars w a horizontal line centered w the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) w green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was added w styczen 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of Syria which has two stars but no script and the flag of Jemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Egipt which has a symbolic eagle centered w the white band
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $58 billion (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 6%

industry: 13%

services: 81% (1993 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,400 (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu -3% (2002 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 33 00 N, 44 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf
Ladowiska helikopterow 5 (2002)
Autostrady total: 45,550 km

paved: 38,399 km

unpaved: 7,151 km (2000 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Import 0 kWh (2001)
Import $7.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Import NA (2001)
Import - towary food, medicine, manufactures
Import - partnerzy Jordania 11%, Francja 8.8%, Chiny 8.4%, Niemcy 7.6%, Rosja 7.3%, Australia 7.2%, Wietnam 6.6%, Wlochy 6.4%, Japonia 5.6% (2002)
Niepodleglosc 3 pazdziernik 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle NA%
Przemysl petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food processing
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 55.16 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 61.09 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 48.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflacja 70% (2002 est.)
Dostawcy internetu 1 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 35,250 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo in transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Sila robocza 6.5 million (2002 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Granica total: 3,650 km

border countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordania 181 km, Kuwejt 240 km, Arabia Saudyjska 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turcja 352 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 11.89%

permanent crops: 0.78%

other: 87.33% (1998 est.)
Jezyki Arabic, Kurdish (official w Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
System prawny in transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Wladza ustawodawcza in transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Zywotnosc total population: 67.81 years

male: 66.7 years

female: 68.99 years (2003 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 40.4%

male: 55.9%

female: 24.4% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwejt
Lokalizacja na mapie Middle East
Morskie obszary continental shelf: not specified

territorial sea: 12 NM
Flota handlowa total: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 119,433 GRT/170,221 DWT

ships by type: cargo 9, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 1 (2002 est.)
Wojsko Army, Republican Guard, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Border Guard Force, Fedayeen Saddam; note - z the defeat of Saddam Hussein's regime w 2003, the data listed w the following entries dla Irak is invalid, but is retained here dla historical purposes and until replaced by valid information related to the future Iraki Government (kwiecien 2003)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $1.3 billion (FY00)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) NA%
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 6,339,458 (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 3,541,467 (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 292,930 (2003 est.)
Swieto narodowe Revolution Day, 17 lipiec (1968)
Narodowosc noun: Iraki(s)

adjective: Iraki
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms, sandstorms, floods
Surowce naturalne petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Rurociagi gas 1,739 km; oil 5,418 km; refined products 1,343 km (2003)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy in transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow in transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Ludnosc 24,683,313 (lipiec 2003 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA
Przyrost naturalny 2.78% (2003 est.)
Porty i stocznie Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, and Al Basrah have limited functionality
Stacje radiowe AM 19 (5 are inactive), FM 51, shortwave 4 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 1,963 km

standard gauge: 1,963 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)
Religie Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Prawo wyborcze formerly 18 years of age; universal; note - w transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
System telefoniczny general assessment: an unknown number of telecommunication facilities were damaged during the marzec-kwiecien 2003 war

domestic: the network consists of coaxial cables and microwave radio relay links

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordania, Kuwejt, Syria, and Turcja; Kuwejt line is probably nonoperational
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 675,000 (1997); note - an unknown number of telephone lines were damaged or destroyed during the marzec-kwiecien war
Telefony komorkowe NA; service available w northern Irak (2001)
Stacje telewizyjne 13 (1997); note - unknown number were destroyed during the marzec-kwiecien 2003 war
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border w south z large flooded areas; mountains along borders z Iran and Turcja
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4.52 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia NA%
Drogi wodne 1,015 km

note: Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic dla about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 m and is w use; Tigris and Euphrates Rivers have navigable sections dla shallow-draft boats; Shatt al Basrah canal was navigable by shallow-draft craft before closing w 1991 because of the Gulf war
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