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Indonezja (2008)

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Indonezja 2008 roku

 Indonezja
Podzial administracyjny 30 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Papua Barat (Irian Jaya Barat), Riau, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*


note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 styczen 2001, the 440 districts or regencies have become the key administrative units responsible dla providing most government services
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 28.7% (male 34,309,176/female 33,148,341)


15-64 years: 65.6% (male 77,132,708/female 76,731,481)


65 years and over: 5.7% (male 5,956,471/female 7,415,820) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs
Lotniska 652 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 158


over 3,047 m: 4


2,438 to 3,047 m: 15


1,524 to 2,437 m: 51


914 to 1,523 m: 49


under 914 m: 39 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 494


1,524 to 2,437 m: 5


914 to 1,523 m: 27


under 914 m: 462 (2007)
Terytorium total: 1,919,440 sq km


land: 1,826,440 sq km


water: 93,000 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Tlo historyczne The Dutch began to colonize Indonezja w the early 17th century; the islands were occupied by Japonia from 1942 to 1945. Indonezja declared its independence after Japonia's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Holandia agreed to relinquish its colony. Indonezja is the world's largest archipelagic state and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing financial sector reforms, stemming corruption, holding the military and police accountable dla human rights violations, and controlling avian influenza. In 2005, Indonezja reached a historic peace agreement z armed separatists w Aceh, which led to democratic elections w grudzien 2006. Indonezja continues to face a low intensity separatist movement w Papua.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 19.65 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $88.21 billion


expenditures: $95.41 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Jakarta


geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E


time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


note: Indonezja is divided into three time zones
Klimat tropical; hot, humid; more moderate w highlands
Linia brzegowa 54,716 km
Konstytucja sierpien 1945; abrogated by Federal Konstytucja of 1949 and Provisional Konstytucja of 1950, restored 5 lipiec 1959; series of amendments concluded w 2002
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Indonezja


conventional short form: Indonezja


local long form: Republik Indonezja


local short form: Indonezja


former: Holandia East Indies, Dutch East Indies
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.25 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $137.2 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron R. HUME


embassy: Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 4-5, Jakarta 10110


mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520


telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000


FAX: [62] (21) 3435-9922


consulate(s) general: Surabaya
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador SUDJADNAN Parnohadiningrat



chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036


telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200


FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Indonezja has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries z all of its neighbors; Timor Wschodni-Indonezja Boundary Committee has resolved all but a small portion of the land boundary, but discussions on maritime boundaries are stalemated over sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Pulau Batek/Fatu Sinai w the north and alignment z Australian claims w the south; many refugees from Timor Wschodni who left w 2003 still reside w Indonezja and refuse repatriation; a 1997 treaty between Indonezja and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malezja w 2002 left the sovereignty of Unarang rock and the maritime boundary w the Ambalat oil block w the Celebes Sea w dispute; the ICJ decision has prompted Indonezja to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonezja and Singapur continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonezja's Batam Island; Indonezjan secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems dla Papua-Nowa Gwinea; piracy remains a problem w the Malacca Strait; maritime delimitation talks continue z Palau; Indonezjan groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonezjan traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie ODA, $2.524 billion (2006 est.)


note: Indonezja ended 2006 z $67 billion w official foreign debt (about 25% of Produkt krajowy brutto), z Japonia ($25 billion), the Swiat Bank ($8.5 billion) and the Asian Development Bank ($8.4 billion) as the largest creditors; about $6 billion w grant assistance was pledged to rebuild Aceh after the grudzien 2004 tsunami; President YUDHOYONO disbanded the Consultative Group on Indonezja (CGI) donor forum w styczen 2007 (2005)
Ekonomia Indonezja, a vast polyglot nation, has been undergoing significant economic reforms under President YUDHOYONO. Indonezja's debt-to-Produkt krajowy brutto ratio has been declining steadily, its foreign exchange reserves are at an all-time high of over $50 billion, and its stock market has been one of the 3 best performers w the world w 2006 and 2007, as global investors sought out higher returns w emerging markets. The government has introduced significant reforms w the financial sector, including tax and customs reforms, the introduction of Treasury bills, and improved capital market supervision. Indonezja's new investment law, passed w marzec 2007, seeks to address some of the concerns of foreign and domestic investors. Indonezja still struggles z poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. Indonezja has been slow to privatize over 100 state-owned enterprises, several of which have monopolies w key sectors. The non-bank financial sector, including pension funds and insurance, remains weak. Stolica markets are underdeveloped. The high global price of oil w 2007 increased the cost of domestic fuel and electricity subsidies, and are contributing to concerns about higher food prices. Located on the Pacific "Ring of Fire" Indonezja remains vulnerable to volcanic and tectonic disasters. Significant progress has been made w rebuilding Aceh after the devastating grudzien 2004 tsunami, and the province now shows more economic activity than before the disaster. Unfortunately, Indonezja suffered new disasters w 2006 and early 2007 including: a major earthquake near Yogyakarta, an industrial accident w Sidoarjo, East Java that created a "mud volcano," a tsunami w South Java, and major flooding w Jakarta, all of which caused additional damages w the billions of dollars. Donors are assisting Indonezja z its disaster mitigation and early warning efforts.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 108 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2006 est.)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2006 est.)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 125.9 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Indyjski 0 m


highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution w urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)
Kurs waluty Indonezjan rupiah per US dollar - 9,056 (2007 est.), 9,159.3 (2006), 9,704.7 (2005), 8,938.9 (2004), 8,577.1 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 pazdziernik 2004); Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 pazdziernik 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 pazdziernik 2004); Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 pazdziernik 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president were elected dla five-year terms (eligible dla a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; last held 20 wrzesien 2004 (next to be held w 2009)


election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president receiving 60.6% of vote; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri received 39.4%
Eksport 0 kWh (2006 est.)
Eksport $118.4 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 29.6 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Eksport 470,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Eksport - towary oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Eksport - partnerzy Japonia 19.4%, Singapur 11.8%, US 11.5%, Chiny 7.7%, South Korea 6.4%, Tajwan 4.2% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monako, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Polska, which is white (top) and red
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 12.4%


industry: 47.7%


services: 39.9% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6.1% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 5 00 S, 120 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Ocean Indyjski to Ocean Spokojny
Ladowiska helikopterow 17 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.6%


highest 10%: 28.5% (2002)
Narkotyki illicit producer of cannabis largely dla domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy
Import 0 kWh (2006 est.)
Import $86.24 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2006)
Import 500,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Import - partnerzy Singapur 29.6%, Chiny 11.2%, Japonia 8.8%, South Korea 5.3%, Malezja 4.8% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 17 sierpien 1945 (declared)


note: recognized by the Holandia on 27 grudzien 1949; w sierpien 2005, the Holandia announced it recognized de facto Indonezjan independence on 17 sierpien 1945
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 6.1% (2007 est.)
Przemysl petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 32.14 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 37.39 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 26.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 6.3% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CP, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PIF (partner), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 45,000 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates selected by the legislature); a separate Konstytucjaal Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi was invested by the president on 16 sierpien 2003; w marzec 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility dla the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning w styczen 2006
Sila robocza 108 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 43.3%


industry: 18%


services: 38.7% (2004 est.)
Granica total: 2,830 km


border countries: Timor Wschodni 228 km, Malezja 1,782 km, Papua-Nowa Gwinea 820 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 11.03%


permanent crops: 7.04%


other: 81.93% (2005)
Jezyki Bahasa Indonezja (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)
System prawny based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (550 seats; members elected to serve five-year terms); House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions; People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) has role w inaugurating and impeaching president and w amending constitution; consists of popularly-elected members w DPR and DPD; MPR does not formulate national policy


elections: last held 5 kwiecien 2004 (next to be held w 2009)


election results: percent of vote by party - Golkar 21.6%, PDI-P 18.5%, PKB 10.6%, PPP 8.2%, PD 7.5%, PKS 7.3%, PAN 6.4%, others 19.9%; seats by party - Golkar 128, PDI-P 109, PPP 58, PD 55, PAN 53, PKB 52, PKS 45, others 50


note: because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties
Zywotnosc total population: 70.16 years


male: 67.69 years


female: 72.76 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 90.4%


male: 94%


female: 86.8% (2004 est.)
Lokalizacja Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Ocean Indyjski and the Ocean Spokojny
Lokalizacja na mapie Southeast Asia
Morskie obszary measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines


territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Flota handlowa total: 965 ships (1000 GRT or over) 4,409,198 GRT/5,825,591 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 53, cargo 522, chemical tanker 25, container 66, liquefied gas 7, livestock carrier 1, passenger 44, passenger/cargo 67, petroleum tanker 155, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 11, specialized tanker 8, vehicle carrier 4


foreign-owned: 45 (Chiny 2, Francja 1, Japonia 5, South Korea 1, Filipiny 1, Singapur 26, Szwajcaria 3, Tajwan 2, Tajlandia 1, UK 3)


registered w other countries: 105 (Bahamas 3, Kambodza 1, Hong Kong 7, Liberia 1, Panama 37, Singapur 56, unknown 5) (2007)
Wojsko Indonezjan Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonezja, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines, naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 17 sierpien (1945)
Narodowosc noun: Indonezjan(s)


adjective: Indonezjan
Naturalne zagrozenia occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires
Surowce naturalne petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Wspolczynnik migracji -1.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi condensate 963 km; condensate/gas 81 km; gas 9,003 km; oil 7,471 km; oil/gas/water 77 km; refined products 1,365 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [MS KABAN]; Democratic Party or PD [Hadi UTOMO]; Functional Groups Party or Golkar [Yusuf KALLA]; Indonezja Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [MUHAIMIN Iskander]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Sutrisno BACHIR]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Tifatul SEMBIRING]; United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 234,693,997 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 17.8% (2006)
Przyrost naturalny 1.213% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 6,458 km


narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (125 km electrified); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (2006)
Religie Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.035 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.005 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.803 male(s)/female


total population: 1.001 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
System telefoniczny general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good


domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system; coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located w remote areas


international: country code - 62; landing point dla both the SEA-ME-WE-3 AND SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Spokojny)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 14.821 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 63.803 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 54 local TV stations (11 national TV networks; each z their own group of local transmitters) (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.38 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9.7% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 21,579 km (2007)
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