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Indonesia (2003)

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Indonesia 2003 year

Administrative divisions 27 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*; note - with the implementation of decentralization on 1 January 2001, the 357 districts (regencies) have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services

note: following the 30 August 1999 provincial referendum for independence that was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur and the October 1999 concurrence of Indonesia's national legislature, the name East Timor was adopted as the provisional name for the political entity formerly known as Propinsi Timor Timur; East Timor gained its formal independence on 20 May 2002
Age structure 0-14 years: 29.7% (male 35,437,274; female 34,232,824)

15-64 years: 65.4% (male 76,743,613; female 76,845,245)

65 years and over: 4.9% (male 5,086,465; female 6,548,032) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs
Airports 631 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 153

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 12

1,524 to 2,437 m: 46

914 to 1,523 m: 48

under 914 m: 43 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 478

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 25

under 914 m: 450 (2002)
Area total: 1,919,440 sq km

land: 1,826,440 sq km

water: 93,000 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Background Indonesia is the world's largest archipelago; it achieved independence from the Netherlands in 1949. Current issues include: alleviating widespread poverty, implementing IMF-mandated reforms of the banking sector, effecting a transition to a popularly-elected government after four decades of authoritarianism, addressing charges of cronyism and corruption, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, and resolving growing separatist pressures in Aceh and Papua.
Birth rate 21.49 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $26 billion

expenditures: $30 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Jakarta
Climate tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Coastline 54,716 km
Constitution August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia

conventional short form: Indonesia

local long form: Republik Indonesia

local short form: Indonesia

former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies
Currency Indonesian rupiah (IDR)
Death rate 6.26 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $131 billion (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ralph L. BOYCE

embassy: Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110

mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520

telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000

FAX: [62] (21) 385-7189

consulate(s) general: Surabaya
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador SOEMADI Brotodiningrat

chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200

FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
Disputes - international East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee continues to meet regularly to survey and delimit land boundary; East Timor refugees delay return from camps in Indonesia; maritime delimitations with Australia and East Timor await further discussions; ICJ awarded Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002; Indonesian secessionists, squatters and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea
Economic aid - recipient $43 billion from IMF program and other official external financing (1997-2000)
Economy - overview Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, faces severe economic development problems stemming from secessionist movements and the low level of security in the regions; the lack of reliable legal recourse in contract disputes; corruption; weaknesses in the banking system; and strained relations with the IMF. Investor confidence will remain low and few new jobs will be created under these circumstances. In November 2001, Indonesia agreed with the IMF on a series of economic reforms in 2002, thus enabling further IMF disbursements. Negotiations with the IMF and bilateral donors continued in 2002. Keys to future growth remain internal reform, the build-up of the confidence of international donors and investors, and a strong comeback in the global economy.
Electricity - consumption 89.08 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 95.78 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 86.9%

hydro: 10.5%

nuclear: 0%

other: 2.5% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Ethnic groups Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%
Exchange rates Indonesian rupiahs per US dollar - 9,311.19 (2002), 10,260.8 (2001), 8,421.77 (2000), 7,855.15 (1999), 10,013.6 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 23 July 2001) and Vice President Hamzah HAZ (since 26 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 23 July 2001) and Vice President Hamzah HAZ (since 26 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president and vice president elected separately by the People's Consultative Assembly or MPR for five-year terms; selection of president last held 23 July 2001; selection of vice president last held 26 July 2001; next election to be held in July 2004; in accordance with constitutional changes, the election of the president and vice president will be by direct vote of the citizenry

election results: MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri elected president, receiving 591 votes in favor (91 abstentions); Hamzah HAZ elected vice president, receiving 340 votes in favor (237 against)

note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR) plus 195 indirectly selected members; it meets every five years to elect the president and vice president and to approve broad outlines of national policy and also has yearly meetings to consider constitutional and legislative changes; constitutional amendments adopted in 2001 and 2002 provide for the MPR to be restructured in 2004 and to consist entirely of popularly-elected members who will be in the DPR and the new House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD); the MPR will no longer formulate national policy
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $52.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports 32.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports - partners Japan 21.1%, US 13.2%, Singapore 9.4%, South Korea 7.2%, China 5.1%, Taiwan 4.2% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year; note - previously was 1 April - 31 March, but starting with 2001, has been changed to calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
GDP purchasing power parity - $714.2 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 17%

industry: 41%

services: 42% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,100 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.7% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 5 00 S, 120 00 E
Geography - note archipelago of more than 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
Heliports 9 (2002)
Highways total: 342,700 km

paved: 158,670 km

unpaved: 184,030 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4%

highest 10%: 26.7% (1999)
Illicit drugs illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $32.1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment; chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners Japan 14.1%, Singapore 13.1%, US 8.5%, China 7.8%, South Korea 5.3%, Taiwan 5.1%, Australia 5.1% (2002)
Independence 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)
Industrial production growth rate 4.9% (2002 est.)
Industries petroleum and natural gas; textiles, apparel, and footwear; mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood; rubber; food; tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 38.09 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 43.5 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 32.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 11.9% (2002 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 24 (2000)
Irrigated land 48,150 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates approved by the legislature); note - the Supreme Court is preparing to assume administrative responsibility for the lower court system, currently run by the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; a separate Constitutional Court was invested by the president on 16 August 2003
Labor force 99 million (1999)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 45%, industry 16%, services 39% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,830 km

border countries: East Timor 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
Land use arable land: 9.9%

permanent crops: 7.2%

other: 82.9% (1998 est.)
Languages Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese
Legal system based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (500 seats; 462 elected by popular vote, 38 are appointed military representatives until 2004 election when military seats expire; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 7 June 1999 (next to be held April 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - PDI-P 37.4%, Golkar 20.9%, PKB 17.4%, PPP 10.7%, PAN 7.3%, PBB 1.8%, other 4.5%; seats by party - PDI-P 154, Golkar 120, PPP 58, PKB 51, PAN 35, PBB 14, other 30; note - subsequent to the election, there has been a change in the distribution of seats; the new distribution is: PDI-P 153, Golkar 120, PPP 58, PKB 51, PAN 35, PBB 13, other 32
Life expectancy at birth total population: 68.94 years

male: 66.54 years

female: 71.47 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 88.5%

male: 92.9%

female: 84.1% (2003 est.)
Location Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 710 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 3,045,673 GRT/4,106,508 DWT

ships by type: bulk 42, cargo 400, chemical tanker 15, container 56, liquefied gas 3, livestock carrier 1, passenger 9, passenger/cargo 13, petroleum tanker 127, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 16, short-sea passenger 9, specialized tanker 11, vehicle carrier 6

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Greece 1, Hong Kong 2, India 1, Japan 2, Malaysia 1, Monaco 3, Panama 1, Philippines 1, Singapore 11, South Korea 1, Switzerland 1, UK 2, US 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy (including marines and naval air arm), Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1 billion (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.3% (FY98)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 65,665,721 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 38,290,550 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 2,213,727 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Nationality noun: Indonesian(s)

adjective: Indonesian
Natural hazards occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires
Natural resources petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines condensate 672 km; condensate/gas 125 km; gas 8,183 km; oil 7,429 km; oil/gas/water 66 km; refined products 1,329 km; water 72 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA, chairman]; Federation of Functional Groups or Golkar [Akbar TANDJUNG, general chairman]; Indonesia Democracy Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri, chairperson]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Alwi SHIHAB, chairman]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Amien RAIS, chairman]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Hidayat NUR WAHID, chairman]; United Development Party or PPP (federation of former Islamic parties) [Hamzah HAZ, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 234,893,453 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 27% (1999)
Population growth rate 1.52% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Makassar, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya
Radio broadcast stations AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)
Railways total: 6,458 km

narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (125 km electrified); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (2002)
Religions Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1998)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Telephone system general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good

domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 5,588,310 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1.07 million (1998)
Television broadcast stations 41 (1999)
Terrain mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Total fertility rate 2.5 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 10.6% (2002 est.)
Waterways 21,579 km total

note: Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km
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