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Hungary (2002)

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Hungary 2002 year

Administrative divisions 19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 20 urban counties* (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city** (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba*, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest**, Csongrad, Debrecen*, Dunaujvaros*, Eger*, Fejer, Gyor*, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely*, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar*, Kecskemet*, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc*, Nagykanizsa*, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza*, Pecs*, Pest, Somogy, Sopron*, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged*, Szekesfehervar*, Szolnok*, Szombathely*, Tatabanya*, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Veszprem*, Zala, Zalaegerszeg*
Age structure 0-14 years: 16.4% (male 847,081; female 802,340)

15-64 years: 68.8% (male 3,406,701; female 3,528,087)

65 years and over: 14.8% (male 544,956; female 945,869) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
Airports 43 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 16

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 27

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 8 (2002)
Area total: 93,030 sq km

land: 92,340 sq km

water: 690 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Indiana
Background Hungary was part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. In the more open GORBACHEV years, Hungary led the movement to dissolve the Warsaw Pact and steadily shifted toward multiparty democracy and a market-oriented economy. Following the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Hungary developed close political and economic ties to Western Europe. It joined NATO in 1999 and is a frontrunner in a future expansion of the EU.
Birth rate 9.34 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $13 billion

expenditures: $14.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Budapest
Climate temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Hungary

conventional short form: Hungary

local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag

local short form: Magyarorszag
Currency forint (HUF)
Death rate 13.09 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $31.5 billion (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Nancy Goodman BRINKER

embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest

mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270

telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400

FAX: [36] (1) 475-4764
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Andras SIMONYI

chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730

FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
Disputes - international Slovakia requested additional ICJ judgment in 1998 and talks continue to set modalities to assure Hungarian compliance with 1997 ICJ decision to proceed with construction of Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Dam, abandoned by Hungary in 1989; Hungary opposes Croatian plan to build a hydropower dam on the boundary stream Drava
Economic aid - recipient ODA $250 million (2000)
Economy - overview Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic growth and to work toward accession to the European Union. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms is widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $23 billion since 1989. Hungarian sovereign debt was upgraded in 2000 to the second-highest rating among all the Central European transition economies. Inflation and unemployment - both priority concerns in 2001 - have declined substantially. The key short-term issue is the reduction of the public sector deficit from its current 6% of GDP to 4.5% in 2003 and 3% in 2004.
Electricity - consumption 35.095 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 1.2 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 5.2 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 33.436 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 59%

hydro: 1%

nuclear: 40%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Tisza River 78 m

highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
Environment - current issues the approximation of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution with environmental requirements for EU accession will require large investments
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Hungarian 89.9%, Roma 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%
Exchange rates forints per US dollar - 275.920 (January 2002), 286.490 (2001), 282.179 (2000), 237.146 (1999), 214.402 (1998), 186.789 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: Ferenc MADL (since NA August 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Peter MEDGYESSY (since 27 May 2002)

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president

elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 6 June 2000 (next to be held by June 2005); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president

election results: Ferenc MADL elected president; percent of legislative vote - NA% (but by a simple majority in the third round of voting); Peter MEDGYESSY elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA%

note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round
Exports 1.2 billion kWh (2000)
Exports $31.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment 57.6%, other manufactures 31.0%, food products 7.5%, raw materials 1.9%, fuels and electricity 1.9% (2001)
Exports - partners Germany 34.9%, Austria 8.7%, Italy 5.9%, US 5.6% (2001)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green
GDP purchasing power parity - $134.7 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 4%

industry: 34%

services: 62% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $13,300 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.2% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 47 00 N, 20 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
Heliports 5 (2002)
Highways total: 188,203 km

paved: 81,680 km (including 448 km of expressways)

unpaved: 106,523 km (1998 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4%

highest 10%: 21% (1998)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; improving, but remains vulnerable to money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking
Imports 5.2 billion kWh (2000)
Imports $33.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment 51.6%, other manufactures 35.3%, fuels and electricity 8.2%, food products 2.9%, raw materials 2.0% (2001)
Imports - partners Germany 26.4%, Italy 8.3%, Austria 7.9%, Russia 6.8% (2001)
Independence 1001 (unification by King Stephen I)
Industrial production growth rate 3.1% (2002 est.)
Industries mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
Infant mortality rate 8.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.3% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 16 (2000)
Irrigated land 2,100 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)
Labor force 4.2 million (1997) (1997)
Labor force - by occupation services 65%, industry 27%, agriculture 8% (1996) (1996)
Land boundaries total: 2,171 km

border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km, Slovakia 677 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km
Land use arable land: 52.2%

permanent crops: 2.46%

other: 45.34% (1998 est.)
Languages Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%
Legal system rule of law based on Western model
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 7 and 21 April 2002 (next to be held NA April 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - FIDESZ/MDF 48.70%, MSZP 46.11%, SZDSZ 4.92%, other 0.27%; seats by party - FIDESZ/MDF 188, MSZP 178, SZDSZ 20
Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.9 years

male: 67.55 years

female: 76.55 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 98% (1980 est.)
Location Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Ground Forces, Air Forces
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.08 billion (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.75% (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,559,260 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,039,710 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 64,121 (2002 est.)
National holiday St. Stephen's Day, 20 August
Nationality noun: Hungarian(s)

adjective: Hungarian
Natural resources bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Net migration rate 0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)
Political parties and leaders Alliance of Free Democrats or SZDSZ [Gabor KUNCZE]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Gyorgy GICZY, president]; Hungarian Civic Party or FIDESZ [Zoltan POKORNI]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Democratic People's Party or MDNP [Erzsebet PUSZTAI, chairman]; Hungarian Justice and Life Party or MIEP [Istvan CSURKA, chairman]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Laszlo KOVACS, chairman]; Hungarian Workers' Party or MMP [Gyula THURMER, chairman]; Independent Smallholders or FKGP [Jozsef TORGYAN, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 10,075,034 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 9% (1993 est.)
Population growth rate -0.3% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Budapest, Dunaujvaros
Radio broadcast stations AM 17, FM 57, shortwave 3 (1998)
Radios 7.01 million (1997)
Railways total: 7,869 km

broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge

standard gauge: 7,614 km 1.435-m gauge (2,423 km electrified; 1,236 km double-tracked)

narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge

note: Hungary and Austria jointly manage the cross-border, standard-gauge railway connecting Gyor, Sopron, and Ebenfurt (Gysev railroad) which has a route length of about 101 km in Hungary and 65 km in Austria (2001)
Religions Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female

total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service

domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones

international: Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals
Telephones - main lines in use 3.095 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1.269 million (July 1999)
Television broadcast stations 35 (plus 161 low-power repeaters) (1995)
Terrain mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Total fertility rate 1.25 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 5.8% (2002 est.)
Waterways 1,373 km (permanently navigable) (1997)
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