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Hungary (2005)

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Hungary 2005 year

Administrative divisions 19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 20 urban counties (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)

counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala

urban counties: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg

capital city: Budapest
Age structure 0-14 years: 15.8% (male 813,203/female 769,687)

15-64 years: 69.1% (male 3,405,559/female 3,511,141)

65 years and over: 15.1% (male 547,323/female 959,922) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
Airports 44 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 18

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 26

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 11

under 914 m: 9 (2004 est.)
Area total: 93,030 sq km

land: 92,340 sq km

water: 690 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Indiana
Background Hungary was part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under Communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "Goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004.
Birth rate 9.76 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $46.07 billion

expenditures: $51.36 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Capital Budapest
Climate temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949; revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Hungary

conventional short form: Hungary

local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag

local short form: Magyarorszag
Death rate 13.19 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $57 billion (2004 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador George Herbert WALKER

embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest

mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270

telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400

FAX: [36] (1) 475-4764
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Andras SIMONYI

chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730

FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
Disputes - international in 2004, Hungary amended the status law extending special social and cultural benefits and voted down a referendum to extend dual citizenship to ethnic Hungarians living in neighboring states, which have objected to such measures; consultations continue between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary's completion of its portion the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Hungary must implement the strict Schengen border rules
Economic aid - recipient $4.2 billion in available EU structural adjustment and cohesion funds (2004-06)
Economy - overview Hungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, with a per capita income one-half that of the Big Four European nations. Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic growth and acceded to the European Union in May 2004. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms are widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $23 billion since 1989. Hungarian sovereign debt was upgraded in 2000 and together with the Czech Republic holds the highest rating among the Central European transition economies; however, ratings agencies have expressed concerns over Hungary's unsustainable budget and current account deficits. Inflation has declined from 14% in 1998 to 7% in 2004. Unemployment has persisted around the 6% level, but Hungary's labor force participation rate of 57% is one of the lowest in the OECD. Germany is by far Hungary's largest economic partner. Policy challenges include cutting the public sector deficit to 3% of GDP by 2008, from about 5% in 2004, and orchestrating an orderly interest rate reduction without sparking capital outflows.
Electricity - consumption 35.99 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports 8.3 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports 12.6 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - production 34.07 billion kWh (2002)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Tisza River 78 m

highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
Environment - current issues the upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Ethnic groups Hungarian 92.3%, Roma 1.9%, other or unknown 5.8% (2001 census)
Exchange rates forints per US dollar - 202.75 (2004), 224.31 (2003), 257.89 (2002), 286.49 (2001), 282.18 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: Laszlo SOLYOM (since 5 August 2005)

head of government: Prime Minister Ferenc GYURCSANY (since 29 September 2004)

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president

elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 6-7 June 2005 (next to be held by June 2010); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held 29 September 2004

election results: Laszlo SOLYOM elected president by a simple majority in the third round of voting, 185 to 182; Ferenc GYURCSANY elected prime minister; result of legislative vote - 197 to 12

note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round
Exports 8.3 billion kWh (2002)
Exports $54.62 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports 4 million cu m (2001 est.)
Exports 47,180 bbl/day (2001)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment 61.1%, other manufactures 28.7%, food products 6.5%, raw materials 2%, fuels and electricity 1.6% (2003)
Exports - partners Germany 31.4%, Austria 6.8%, France 5.7%, Italy 5.6%, UK 5.1% (2004)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3.3%

industry: 31.4%

services: 65.3% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $14,900 (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.9% (2004 est.)
Geographic coordinates 47 00 N, 20 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
Heliports 5 (2004 est.)
Highways total: 159,568 km

paved: 70,050 km (including 533 km of expressways)

unpaved: 89,518 km (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4.1%

highest 10%: 20.5% (1998)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; improving, but remains vulnerable to money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking
Imports 12.6 billion kWh (2002)
Imports $58.68 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports 9.587 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports 136,600 bbl/day (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment 51.6%, other manufactures 35.7%, fuels and electricity 7.7%, food products 3.1%, raw materials 2.0% (2003)
Imports - partners Germany 29.2%, Austria 8.3%, Russia 5.7%, Italy 5.5%, Netherlands 4.9%, China 4.8%, France 4.7% (2004)
Independence 1001 (unification by King Stephen I)
Industrial production growth rate 9.6% (2004 est.)
Industries mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
Infant mortality rate total: 8.57 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 9.27 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 7.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 7% (2004 est.)
International organization participation Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU (new member), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (member affiliate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Irrigated land 2,100 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)
Labor force 4.17 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 6.2%, industry 27.1%, services 66.7% (2002)
Land boundaries total: 2,171 km

border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km, Slovakia 677 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km
Land use arable land: 50.09%

permanent crops: 2.06%

other: 47.85% (2001)
Languages Hungarian 93.6%, other or unspecified 6.4% (2001 census)
Legal system rule of law based on Western model
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 7 and 21 April 2002 (next to be held NA April 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - Fidesz/MDF 48.70%, MSzP 46.11%, SzDSz 4.92%, other 0.27%; seats by party - Fidesz 164, MSzP 178, MDF 24, SzDSz 20
Life expectancy at birth total population: 72.4 years

male: 68.18 years

female: 76.89 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.4%

male: 99.5%

female: 99.3% (2003 est.)
Location Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Ground Forces, Air Forces
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.08 billion (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.75% (2002 est.)
National holiday Saint Stephen's Day, 20 August
Nationality noun: Hungarian(s)

adjective: Hungarian
Natural resources bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Net migration rate 0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Pipelines gas 4,397 km; oil 990 km; refined products 335 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Alliance of Free Democrats or SzDSz [Gabor KUNCZE]; Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN, chairman]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Democratic People's Party or MDNP [Erzsebet PUSZTAI, chairman]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Istvan HILLER, chairman]; Hungarian Workers' Party or MMP [Gyula THURMER, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 10,006,835 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line 8.6% (1993 est.)
Population growth rate -0.26% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Budapest, Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Csepel, Baja, Mohacs (2003)
Radio broadcast stations AM 17, FM 57, shortwave 3 (1998)
Railways total: 7,937 km

broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge

standard gauge: 7,682 km 1.435-m gauge (2,628 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2004)
Religions Roman Catholic 51.9%, Calvinist 15.9%, Lutheran 3%, Greek Catholic 2.6%, other Christian 1%, other or unspecified 11.1%, unaffiliated 14.5% (2001 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female

total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service

domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones

international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals
Telephones - main lines in use 3,666,400 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 6,862,800 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 35 (plus 161 low-power repeaters) (1995)
Terrain mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Total fertility rate 1.32 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 5.9% (2004 est.)
Waterways 1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2004)
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