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Hiszpania (2008)

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Hiszpania 2008 roku

 Hiszpania
Podzial administracyjny 17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma)and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias, Baleares (Balearic Islands), Ceuta*, Canarias (Canary Islands), Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna, Comunidad Valenciana, Extremadura, Galicia, La Rioja, Madrid, Melilla*, Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco (Basque Country)


note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all along the coast of Maroko and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 14.4% (male 3,005,818/female 2,826,805)


15-64 years: 67.8% (male 13,758,869/female 13,661,295)


65 years and over: 17.8% (male 3,002,585/female 4,192,819) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish
Lotniska 154 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 96


over 3,047 m: 18


2,438 to 3,047 m: 11


1,524 to 2,437 m: 18


914 to 1,523 m: 25


under 914 m: 24 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 58


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 14


under 914 m: 42 (2007)
Terytorium total: 504,782 sq km


land: 499,542 sq km


water: 5,240 sq km


note: there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Maroko - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
Tlo historyczne Hiszpania's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, Francja, and Niemcy w economic and political power. Hiszpania remained neutral w Swiat Wars I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO w 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Hiszpania joined the EU w 1986) have given Hiszpania one of the most dynamic economies w Europe and made it a global champion of freedom. Continuing challenges include Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorism, illegal immigration, and slowing economic growth.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 9.98 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $571.1 billion


expenditures: $544.9 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Madrid


geographic coordinates: 40 24 N, 3 41 W


time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik


note: Hiszpania is divided into two time zones including the Canary Islands
Klimat temperate; clear, hot summers w interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters w interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
Linia brzegowa 4,964 km
Konstytucja approved by legislature 31 pazdziernik 1978; passed by referendum 6 grudzien 1978, effective 29 grudzien 1978
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Kingdom of Hiszpania


conventional short form: Hiszpania


local long form: Reino de Espana


local short form: Espana
Wspolczynnik zgonow 9.81 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $2.047 trillion (30 czerwiec 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Eduardo AGUIRRE, Jr.


embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid


mailing address: PSC 61, APO AE 09642


telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200


FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303


consulate(s) general: Barcelona
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos WESTENDORP


chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037


telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340


FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670


consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Portoryko)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to remain a British colony and against a "total shared sovereignty" arrangement while demanding participation w talks between the UK and Hiszpania; Hiszpania disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Maroko protests Hiszpania's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; Maroko serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Hiszpania from North Africa; Portugalia does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $1.33 billion (1999)
Ekonomia The Spanish economy boomed from 1986 to 1990 averaging 5% annual growth. After a European-wide recession w the early 1990s, the Spanish economy resumed moderate growth starting w 1994. Hiszpania's mixed capitalist economy supports a Produkt krajowy brutto that on a per capita basis is equal to that of the leading West European economies. The center-right government of former President Jose Maria AZNAR successfully worked to gain admission to the first group of countries launching the European single currency (the euro) on 1 styczen 1999. The AZNAR administration continued to advocate liberalization, privatization, and deregulation of the economy and introduced some tax reforms to that end. Unemployment fell steadily under the AZNAR administration but remains high at 7.6%. Growth averaging more than 3% annually during 2003-07 was satisfactory given the background of a faltering European economy. The Socialist president, RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO, has made mixed progress w carrying out key structural reforms, which need to be accelerated and deepened to sustain Hiszpania's economic growth. Despite the economy's relative solid footing significant downside risks remain including Hiszpania's continued loss of competitiveness, the potential dla a housing market collapse, the country's changing demographic profile, and a decline w EU structural funds.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 243 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 11.56 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 10.21 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 270.3 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Atlantycki 0 m


highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Grupy etniczne composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types
Kurs waluty euros per US dollar - 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 listopad 1975); Heir Apparent Prince FELIPE, son of the monarch, born 30 styczen 1968


head of government: President of the Government (Prime Minister equivalent) Jose Luis RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO (since 17 kwiecien 2004); First Vice President (and Minister of the Presidency) Maria Teresa FERNANDEZ DE LA VEGA (since 18 kwiecien 2004) and Second Vice President (and Minister of Economy and Finance) Pedro SOLBES (since 18 kwiecien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president


note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding


elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually proposed president by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 14 marzec 2004 (next to be held w marzec 2008); vice presidents appointed by the monarch on the proposal of the president


election results: Jose Luis RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 52.29%
Eksport 11.56 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $248.3 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 175,200 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods
Eksport - partnerzy Francja 18.8%, Niemcy 11%, Portugalia 9%, Wlochy 8.6%, UK 8%, US 4.4% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red z the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms includes the royal seal framed by the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 3.8%


industry: 29.4%


services: 66.8% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 3.8% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 40 00 N, 4 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
Ladowiska helikopterow 8 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.6%


highest 10%: 26.6% (2000)
Narkotyki despite rigorous law enforcement efforts, North African, Latin American, Galician, and other European traffickers take advantage of Hiszpania's long coastline to land large shipments of cocaine and hashish dla distribution to the European market; consumer dla Latin American cocaine and North African hashish; destination and minor transshipment point dla Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering site dla Kolumbian narcotics trafficking organizations and organized crime
Import 10.21 billion kWh (2005)
Import $359.1 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 31.76 billion cu m (2005)
Import 1.714 million bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments
Import - partnerzy Niemcy 14.8%, Francja 13.4%, Wlochy 8.3%, UK 5.2%, Holandia 4.9%, Chiny 4.6% (2006)
Niepodleglosc the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began w the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating w the seizure of Granada w 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Hiszpania
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 3% (2007 est.)
Przemysl textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 4.31 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 2.4% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB (nonregional members), AfDB, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMEE, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 37,800 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo
Sila robocza 22.01 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 5.3%


industry: 30.1%


services: 64.6% (2004 est.)
Granica total: 1,917.8 km


border countries: Andora 63.7 km, Francja 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugalia 1,214 km, Maroko (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Maroko (Melilla) 9.6 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 27.18%


permanent crops: 9.85%


other: 62.97% (2005)
Jezyki Castilian Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%, are official regionally
System prawny civil law system, z regional applications; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral; General Courts or National Assembly or Las Cortes Generales consists of the Senate or Senado (259 seats; 208 members directly elected by popular vote and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures; to serve four-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; each of the 50 electoral provinces fills a minimum of two seats and the North African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla fill one seat each z members serving a four-year term; the other 248 members are determined by proportional representation based on popular vote on block lists who serve four-year terms)


elections: Senate - last held on 14 marzec 2004 (next to be held w marzec 2008); Congress of Deputies - last held on 14 marzec 2004 (next to be held w marzec 2008)


election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PP 49%, PSOE 38%, Entesa Catalona de Progress 5.7%, PNV 2.8%, CC 2.4%, CiU 2%; seats by party - PP 102, PSOE 81, Entesa Catalona de Progress 12, PNV 6, CiU 4, CC 3; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSOE 43.3%, PP 37.8%, CiU 3.2%, IU 3.2%, ERC 2.5%, PNV 1.6%, CC 0.9%, other 7.5%; seats by party - PSOE 164, PP 148, CiU 10, ERC 8, PNV 7, IU 5, CC 3, other 5
Zywotnosc total population: 79.78 years


male: 76.46 years


female: 83.32 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 97.9%


male: 98.7%


female: 97.2% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea, North Ocean Atlantycki, and Pyrenees Mountains, southwest of Francja
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Ocean Atlantycki)
Flota handlowa total: 167 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,365,450 GRT/2,282,245 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 9, cargo 13, chemical tanker 13, container 25, liquefied gas 10, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 52, petroleum tanker 15, refrigerated cargo 5, roll on/roll off 17, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 5


foreign-owned: 33 (Kuba 1, Dania 2, Niemcy 9, Wlochy 1, Meksyk 3, Norwegia 6, US 9, Urugwaj 2)


registered w other countries: 106 (Angola 1, Bahamas 11, Belize 2, Brazylia 4, Republika Zielonego Przyladka 1, Kuba 1, Cypr 7, Irland 1, Malta 1, Wyspy Marshalla 3, Nigeria 1, Panama 61, Portugalia 10, St Kitts and Nevis 1, Wenezuela 1) (2007)
Wojsko Spanish Armed Forces: Army (Ejercito de Tierra), Spanish Navy (Armada Espanola, AE; includes Marine Corps), Spanish Air Force (Ejercito del Aire Espanola, EdA) (2006)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.2% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe National Day, 12 pazdziernik (1492); year when Columbus first set foot w the Americas
Narodowosc noun: Spaniard(s)


adjective: Spanish
Naturalne zagrozenia periodic droughts
Surowce naturalne coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji 0.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 7,858 km; oil 622 km; refined products 3,445 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Aragonese Party or CHA [Bizen FUSTER]; Basque Nationalist Party or PNV [Inigo URKULLU]; Basque Solidarity or EA [Begona ERRAZTI]; Canarian Coalition or CC [Jose Torres STINGA] (a coalition of five parties); Convergence and Union or CiU [Artur MAS i Gavarro] (a coalition of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC [Artur MAS i Gavarro] and the Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN i LLEIDA]); Entesa Catalonia de Progress (a Senate coalition grouping four Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA); Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Anxo Manuel QUINTANA Gonzalez]; Initiative dla Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan SAURA i Laporta]; Navarra yes or Na Bai [Uxue BARKOS Berruezo] (a coalition of four Navarran parties); Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey]; Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Josep-Lluis CAROD-ROVIRA]; Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Jose Luis RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO]; United Left or IU [Gaspar LLAMAZARES Trigo] (a coalition of parties including the PCE and other small parties)
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Association dla Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks and supporting its victims); Basta Ya (Spanish dla "Enough is Enough"; grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks and supporting its victims); business and landowning interests; Catholic Church; free labor unions (authorized w kwiecien 1977); Nunca Mais (Galician dla "Never Again"; formed w response to the oil Tanker Prestige oil spill); Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; university students; Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO.
Ludnosc 40,448,191 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 19.8% (2005)
Przyrost naturalny 0.116% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 208, FM 715, shortwave 1 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 14,974 km


broad gauge: 11,919 km 1.668-m gauge (6,950 km electrified)


standard gauge: 1,099 km 1.435-m gauge (1,054 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 1,928 km 1.000-m gauge (815 km electrified); 28 km 0.914-m gauge (28 km electrified) (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic 94%, other 6%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.063 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.007 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.716 male(s)/female


total population: 0.956 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: well developed, modern facilities; fixed-line teledensity is 45 connections dla each 100 persons


domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is 160 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 18.385 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 46.152 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 224 (plus 2,105 repeaters; includes 11 television broadcast stations and 88 repeaters w the Canary Islands) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees w north
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.29 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 7.6% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 1,000 km (2003)
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