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Spain (2004)

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Spain 2004 year

Administrative divisions 17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma)and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias, Baleares (Balearic Islands), Ceuta*, Canarias (Canary Islands), Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna, Comunidad Valenciana, Extremadura, Galicia, La Rioja, Madrid, Melilla*, Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco (Basque Country)

note: three small Spanish possessions of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all located off the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)
Age structure 0-14 years: 14.4% (male 2,989,053; female 2,811,350)

15-64 years: 68% (male 13,748,998; female 13,652,852)

65 years and over: 17.6% (male 2,958,387; female 4,120,140) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish
Airports 156 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 95

over 3,047 m: 15

2,438 to 3,047 m: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 19

914 to 1,523 m: 23

under 914 m: 28 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 61

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 15

under 914 m: 44 (2004 est.)
Area total: 504,782 sq km

land: 499,542 sq km

water: 5,240 sq km

note: there are 19 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera
Area - comparative slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
Background Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World Wars I and II, but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). In the second half of the 20th century, Spain has played a catch-up role in the western international community; it joined the EU in 1986. Continuing challenges include Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorism and further reductions in unemployment.
Birth rate 10.11 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $330.7 billion

expenditures: $335.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $12.8 billion (2003 est.)
Capital Madrid
Climate temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
Coastline 4,964 km
Constitution 6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain

conventional short form: Spain

local short form: Espana
Currency euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by the financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions with the member countries
Death rate 9.55 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $718.4 billion (2003 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires J. Robert MANZANARES

embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid

mailing address: PSC 61, APO AE 09642

telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200

FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303

consulate(s) general: Barcelona
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos WESTENDORP

chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340

FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
Disputes - international since Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum in 2003 against a "total shared sovereignty" arrangement, talks between the UK and Spain over the fate of the 300-year old UK colony have stalled; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; Morocco serves as the primary launching area of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Morocco rejected Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands in 2002 to set limits to undersea resource exploration and refugee interdiction, but agreed in 2003 to discuss a comprehensive maritime delimitation; some Portuguese groups assert dormant claims to territories ceded to Spain around the town of Olivenza
Economic aid - donor ODA, $1.33 billion (1999)
Economy - overview Spain's mixed capitalist economy supports a GDP that on a per capita basis is 80% that of the four leading West European economies. The center-right government of former President AZNAR successfully worked to gain admission to the first group of countries launching the European single currency (the euro) on 1 January 1999. The AZNAR administration continued to advocate liberalization, privatization, and deregulation of the economy and introduced some tax reforms to that end. Unemployment fell steadily under the AZNAR administration but remains high at 11.7%. Growth of 2.4% in 2003 was satisfactory given the background of a faltering European economy. Incoming President RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO, whose party won the election three days after the Madrid train bombings in March, plans to reduce government intervention in business, combat tax fraud, and support innovation, research and development, but also intends to reintroduce labor market regulations that had been scrapped by the AZNAR government. Adjusting to the monetary and other economic policies of an integrated Europe - and reducing unemployment - will pose challenges to Spain over the next few years.
Electricity - consumption 210.4 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 4.138 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 7.588 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 222.5 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m
Environment - current issues pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Ethnic groups composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975); Heir Apparent Prince FELIPE, son of the monarch, born 30 January 1968

head of government: President of the Government Jose Luis RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO (since 17 April 2004); First Vice President (and Minister of the Presidency) Maria Teresa FERNANDEZ DE LA VEGA(since 18 April 2004) and Second Vice President (and Minister of Economy and Finance) Pedro SOLBES (since 18 April 2004)

cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president

note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding

elections: the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually proposed president by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly; election last held 14 March 2004 (next to be held NA March 2008); vice presidents appointed by the monarch on the proposal of the president

election results: Jose Luis RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO (PSOE) elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 52.29%
Exports 4.138 billion kWh (2001)
Exports $159.4 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports 135,100 bbl/day (2001)
Exports - commodities machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, other consumer goods
Exports - partners France 19.2%, Germany 11.9%, Italy 9.7%, UK 9.4%, Portugal 9.3%, US 4.2% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms includes the royal seal framed by the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar
GDP purchasing power parity - $885.5 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3.6%

industry: 28.6%

services: 67.8% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $22,000 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.4% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 40 00 N, 4 00 W
Geography - note strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
Heliports 8 (2003 est.)
Highways total: 663,795 km

paved: 657,157 km (including 10,317 km of expressways)

unpaved: 6,638 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 25.2% (1990)
Illicit drugs key European gateway country and consumer for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish entering the European market; destination and minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money laundering site for European earnings of Colombian narcotics trafficking organizations
Imports 7.588 billion kWh (2001)
Imports $197.1 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports 17.26 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports 1.582 million bbl/day (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods; foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports - partners France 16.8%, Germany 16.6%, Italy 8.8%, UK 6.5%, Netherlands 4.9% (2003)
Independence the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Moslem occupation that began in the early 8th century A. D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain
Industrial production growth rate 1.6% (2003 est.)
Industries textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 4.48 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.88 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2003 est.)
International organization participation AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUB, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Irrigated land 36,400 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo
Labor force 18.82 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 7%, manufacturing, mining, and construction 29%, services 64% (2001 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,917.8 km

border countries: Andorra 63.7 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,214 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Morocco (Melilla) 9.6 km
Land use arable land: 26.07%

permanent crops: 9.87%

other: 64.06% (2001)
Languages Castilian Spanish 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%

note: Castilian is the official language nationwide; the other languages are official regionally
Legal system civil law system, with regional applications; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral; General Courts or National Assembly or Las Cortes Generales consists of the Senate or Senado (259 seats - 208 members directly elected by popular vote and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to serve four-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; members are elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 14 March 2004 (next to be held March 2008); Congress of Deputies - last held 14 March 2004 (next to be held March 2008)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PP 49%, PSOE 38.9%, Entesa Catalona de Progress 5.7%, CiU 1.99%, PNV 2.8%, CC 1.4%; seats by party - PP 102, PSOE 81, Entesa Catalona de Progress 12, CiU 4, PNV 6, CC 3; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSOE 43.3%, PP 37.8%, CiU 3.2%, ERC 2.5%, PNV 1.6%, IU 3.2%, CC 0.9%; seats by party - PSOE 164, PP 148, CiU 10, ERC 8, PNV 7, IU 2, CC 3, other 8
Life expectancy at birth total population: 79.37 years

male: 76.03 years

female: 82.94 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.9%

male: 98.7%

female: 97.2% (2003 est.)
Location Southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, and Pyrenees Mountains, southwest of France
Map references Europe
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)
Merchant marine total: 149 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,740,974 GRT/2,157,551 DWT

by type: bulk 9, cargo 29, chemical tanker 13, container 17, liquefied gas 6, livestock carrier 1, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 21, refrigerated cargo 5, roll on/roll off 32, short-sea/passenger 7, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 7

foreign-owned: Chile 1, Cuba 1, Denmark 1, Germany 9, Italy 2, Netherlands 1, Norway 6, Sweden 1, Uruguay 1

registered in other countries: 115 (2004 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force (Ejercito del Aire, EdA), Marines
Military expenditures - dollar figure $9,906.5 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.2% (2003)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 10,482,753 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 8,336,273 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 245,007 (2004 est.)
National holiday National Day, 12 October
Nationality noun: Spaniard(s)

adjective: Spanish
Natural hazards periodic droughts
Natural resources coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land
Net migration rate 0.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines gas 7,306 km; oil 730 km; refined products 3,512 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Basque Nationalist Party or PNV [Josu Jon IMAZ]; Canarian Coalition or CC (a coalition of five parties) [Paulino RIVERO Baute]; Convergence and Union or CiU [Artur MAS i Gavarro] (a coalition of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC [Artur MAS i Gavarro] and the Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN y LLEIDA]); Entesa Catalonia de Progress (a Senate coalition grouping four Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA) [leader NA]; Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Anxo Manuel QUINTANA]; Party of Independents from Lanzarote or PIL [Dimas MARTIN Martin]; Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY]; Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Josep-Lluis CAROD-ROVIRA]; Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Jose Luis RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO]; United Left or IU (a coalition of parties including the PCE and other small parties) [Gaspar LLAMAZARES]
Political pressure groups and leaders business and landowning interests; Catholic Church; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; university students; Workers Confederation or CC.OO; Nunca Mas (Galician for "Never Again"; formed in response to the oil tanker Prestige oil spill)
Population 40,280,780 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate 0.16% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Aviles, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz, Cartagena, Castellon de la Plana, Ceuta, Huelva, A Coruna, Las Palmas (Canary Islands), Malaga, Melilla, Pasajes, Gijon, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands), Santander, Tarragona, Valencia, Vigo
Radio broadcast stations AM 208, FM 715, shortwave 1 (1998)
Railways total: 14,268 km (7,718 km electrified)

broad gauge: 11,804 km 1.668-m gauge (6,409 km electrified)

standard gauge: 526 km 1.435-m gauge (526 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 1,910 km 1.000-m gauge (755 km electrified); 28 km 0.914-m gauge (28 km electrified) (2003)
Religions Roman Catholic 94%, other 6%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: generally adequate, modern facilities; teledensity is 44 main lines for each 100 persons

domestic: NA

international: country code - 34; 22 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries
Telephones - main lines in use 17,567,500 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 37,506,700 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 224 (plus 2,105 repeaters)

note: these figures include 11 television broadcast stations and 88 repeaters in the Canary Islands (1995)
Terrain large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees in north
Total fertility rate 1.27 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 11.3% (2003 est.)
Waterways 1,045 km (2003)
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