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Gwatemala (2008)

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Gwatemala 2008 roku

 Gwatemala
Podzial administracyjny 22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Gwatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 40.8% (male 2,641,179/female 2,556,397)


15-64 years: 55.5% (male 3,426,376/female 3,642,157)


65 years and over: 3.6% (male 213,801/female 248,201) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens
Lotniska 402 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 12


2,438 to 3,047 m: 3


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 4


under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 390


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 6


914 to 1,523 m: 82


under 914 m: 301 (2007)
Terytorium total: 108,890 sq km


land: 108,430 sq km


water: 460 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Tennessee
Tlo historyczne The majan civilization flourished w Gwatemala and surrounding regions during the first millennium A.D. After almost three centuries as a Spanish colony, Gwatemala won its independence w 1821. During the second half of the 20th century, it experienced a variety of military and civilian governments, as well as a 36-year guerrilla war. In 1996, the government signed a peace agreement formally ending the conflict, which had left more than 100,000 people dead and had created, by some estimates, some 1 million refugees.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 29.09 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $4.301 billion


expenditures: $5.219 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Gwatemala


geographic coordinates: 14 37 N, 90 31 W


time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w kwiecien; ends last Friday w wrzesien; note - there is no DST planned dla 2007-2009
Klimat tropical; hot, humid w lowlands; cooler w highlands
Linia brzegowa 400 km
Konstytucja 31 maj 1985, effective 14 styczen 1986; note - suspended 25 maj 1993 by former President Jorge SERRANO; reinstated 5 czerwiec 1993 following ouster of president; amended listopad 1993
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Gwatemala


conventional short form: Gwatemala


local long form: Republica de Gwatemala


local short form: Gwatemala
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.27 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $5.561 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador James M. DERHAM


embassy: 7-01 Avenida Reforma, Zone 10, Gwatemala City


mailing address: APO AA 34024


telephone: [502] 2326-4000


FAX: [502] 2326-4654
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Guillermo CASTILLO


chancery: 2220 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 745-4952


FAX: [1] (202) 745-1908


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Providence, San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje annual ministerial meetings under the OAS-initiated Agreement on the Framework dla Negotiations and Confidence Building Measures continue to address Gwatemalan land and maritime claims w Belize and the Caribbean Sea; the Line of Adjacency created under the 2002 Differendum serves w lieu of the contiguous international boundary to control squatting w the sparsely inhabited rain forests of Belize's border region; Meksyk must deal z thousands of impoverished Gwatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking dla work w Meksyk and the Stany Zjednoczone
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $253.6 million (2005 est.)
Ekonomia Gwatemala is the most populous of the Central American countries z a Produkt krajowy brutto per capita roughly one-half that of Argentyna, Brazylia, and Chile. The agricultural sector accounts dla about one-fourth of Produkt krajowy brutto, two-fifths of exports, and half of the labor force. Coffee, sugar, and bananas are the main products, z sugar exports benefiting from increased global demand dla ethanol. The 1996 signing of peace accords, which ended 36 years of civil war, removed a major obstacle to foreign investment, and Gwatemala since then has pursued important reforms and macroeconomic stabilization. On 1 lipiec 2006, the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) entered into force between the US and Gwatemala and has since spurred increased investment w the export sector. The distribution of income remains highly unequal z about 56% of the population below the poverty line. Other ongoing challenges include increasing government revenues, negotiating further assistance from international donors, upgrading both government and private financial operations, curtailing drug trafficking and rampant crime, and narrowing the trade deficit. Given Gwatemala's large expatriate community w the Stany Zjednoczone, it is the top remittance recipient w Central America, z inflows serving as a primary source of foreign income equivalent to nearly two-thirds of exports.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 6.361 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 339 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 23 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 7.281 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Spokojny 0 m


highest point: Volcan Tajumulco 4,211 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation w the Peten rainforest; soil erosion; water pollution
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish - w local Spanish called Ladino) and European 59.4%, K'iche 9.1%, Kaqchikel 8.4%, Mam 7.9%, Q'eqchi 6.3%, other majan 8.6%, indigenous non-Mayan 0.2%, other 0.1% (2001 census)
Kurs waluty quetzales per US dollar - 7.6833 (2007), 7.6026 (2006), 7.6339 (2005), 7.9465 (2004), 7.9409 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Alvaro COLOM Caballeros (since 14 styczen 2008); Vice President Rafael ESPADA (since 14 styczen 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Alvaro COLOM Caballeros (since 14 styczen 2008); Vice President Rafael ESPADA (since 14 styczen 2008)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 9 wrzesien 2007; runoff held 4 listopad 2007 (next to be held wrzesien 2011)


election results: Alvaro COLOM Caballeros elected president; percent of vote - Alvaro COLOM Caballeros 52.8%, Otto PEREZ Molina 47.2%
Eksport 339 million kWh (2005)
Eksport $7.468 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 15,560 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Eksport - towary coffee, sugar, petroleum, apparel, bananas, fruits and vegetables, cardamom
Eksport - partnerzy US 44.6%, Salwador 11.9%, Honduras 7.2%, Meksyk 5.2% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and light blue z the coat of arms centered w the white band; the coat of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) and a scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the original date of independence from Hiszpania) all superimposed on a pair of crossed rifles and a pair of crossed swords and framed by a wreath
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 13.8%


industry: 27.9%


services: 58.3% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5.6% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 15 30 N, 90 15 W
Polozenie geograficzne no natural harbors on west coast
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 0.9%


highest 10%: 43.4% (2002)
Narkotyki major transit country dla cocaine and heroin; w 2005, cultivated 100 hectares of opium poppy after reemerging as a potential source of opium w 2004; potential production of less than 1 metric ton of pure heroin; marijuana cultivation dla mostly domestic consumption; proximity to Meksyk makes Gwatemala a major staging area dla drugs (particularly dla cocaine); money laundering is a serious problem; corruption is a major problem
Import 23 million kWh (2005)
Import $12.67 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 72,960 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Import - towary fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, grain, fertilizers, electricity
Import - partnerzy US 33.2%, Meksyk 8.8%, Chiny 6.5%, Salwador 5.3%, South Korea 4.9% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 15 wrzesien 1821 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5.9% (2007 est.)
Przemysl sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 29.77 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 32.26 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 27.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 6.6% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji BCIE, CACM, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMEE, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 1,300 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Konstytucjaal Court or Corte de Constitutcionalidad is Gwatemala's highest court (five judges are elected dla concurrent five-year terms); Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (13 members serve concurrent five-year terms and elect a president of the Court each year from among their number; the president of the Supreme Court of Justice also supervises trial judges around the country, who are named to five-year terms)
Sila robocza 3.958 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 50%


industry: 15%


services: 35% (1999 est.)
Granica total: 1,687 km


border countries: Belize 266 km, Salwador 203 km, Honduras 256 km, Meksyk 962 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 13.22%


permanent crops: 5.6%


other: 81.18% (2005)
Jezyki Spanish 60%, Amerindian languages 40% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca)
System prawny civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Congress of the Republic or Congreso de la Republica (158 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 9 wrzesien 2007 (next to be held w wrzesien 2011)


election results: percent of vote by party - UNE 30.4%, GANA 23.4%, PP 18.9%, FRG 9.5%, PU 5.1%, other 12.7%; seats by party - UNE 48, GANA 37, PP 30, FRG 15, PU 8, CASA 5, EG 4, PAN 4, UCN 4, URNG 2, UD 1
Zywotnosc total population: 69.69 years


male: 67.94 years


female: 71.52 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 69.1%


male: 75.4%


female: 63.3% (2002 census)
Lokalizacja Central America, bordering the North Ocean Spokojny, between Salwador and Meksyk, and bordering the Gulf of Honduras (Caribbean Sea) between Honduras and Belize
Lokalizacja na mapie Central America and the Caribbean
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Wojsko Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 0.4% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 15 wrzesien (1821)
Narodowosc noun: Gwatemalan(s)


adjective: Gwatemalan
Naturalne zagrozenia numerous volcanoes w mountains, z occasional violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast extremely susceptible to hurricanes and other tropical storms
Surowce naturalne petroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji -2.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi oil 480 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Center of Social Action or CASA [Eduardo SUGER]; Democracy Front or FRENTE [Alfonso CABRERA]; Democratic Union or UD [Manuel CONDE Orellana]; Encounter dla Gwatemala or EG [Nineth MONTENGRO]; Grand National Alliance or GANA [Alfredo VILLA]; Gwatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or URNG [Hector NUILA]; Gwatemalan Republican Front or FRG [Efrain RIOS Montt]; National Advancement Party or PAN [Ruben Dario MORALES]; National Unity dla Hope or UNE [Alvaro COLOM Caballeros]; Patriot Party or PP [Ret. Gen. Otto PEREZ Molina]; Unionista Party or PU [Fritz GARCIA]; Unity of National Change or UCN [Sidney SHAW]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Agrarian Owners Group or UNAGRO; Alliance Against Impunity or AAI; Committee dla Campesino Unity or CUC; Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF; Mutual Support Group or GAM
Ludnosc 12,728,111 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 56.2% (2004 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 2.152% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 130, FM 487, shortwave 15 (2000)
Linie kolejowe total: 886 km


narrow gauge: 886 km 0.914-m gauge (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic, Protestant, indigenous majan beliefs
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.033 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.941 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.861 male(s)/female


total population: 0.974 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal; note - active duty members of the armed forces may not vote and are restricted to their barracks on election day
System telefoniczny general assessment: fairly modern network centered w the city of Gwatemala


domestic: state-owned telecommunications company privatized w the late 1990s opening the way dla competition; fixed-line teledensity 11 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 60 per 100 persons


international: country code - 502; landing point dla both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the SAM-1 fiber optic submarine cable system that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 1.355 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 7.179 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 26 (plus 27 repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly mountains z narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateau
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 3.7 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 3.2% (2005 est.)
Drogi wodne 990 km


note: 260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable during high-water season (2007)
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