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Guatemala (2003)

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Guatemala 2003 year

Administrative divisions 22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa
Age structure 0-14 years: 42.9% (male 3,052,658; female 2,908,428)

15-64 years: 53.8% (male 3,779,688; female 3,706,315)

65 years and over: 3.3% (male 215,653; female 246,642) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens
Airports 466 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 455

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 9

914 to 1,523 m: 115

under 914 m: 330 (2002)
Area total: 108,890 sq km

land: 108,430 sq km

water: 460 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Tennessee
Background Guatemala was freed of Spanish colonial rule in 1821. During the second half of the 20th century, it experienced a variety of military and civilian governments as well as a 36-year guerrilla war. In 1996, the government signed a peace agreement formally ending the conflict, which had led to the death of more than 100,000 people and had created some 1 million refugees.
Birth rate 35.05 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.3 billion

expenditures: $2.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $750 million (2002 est.)
Capital Guatemala
Climate tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands
Coastline 400 km
Constitution 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986; note - suspended 25 May 1993 by former President SERRANO; reinstated 5 June 1993 following ouster of president; amended November 1993
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Guatemala

conventional short form: Guatemala

local long form: Republica de Guatemala

local short form: Guatemala
Currency quetzal (GTQ), US dollar (USD), others allowed
Death rate 6.78 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $4.9 billion (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador John Randle HAMILTON

embassy: 7-01 Avenida Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City

mailing address: APO AA 34024

telephone: [502] 331-1541/55

FAX: [502] 334-8477
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio Fernando ARENALES Forno

chancery: 2220 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 745-4952

FAX: [1] (202) 745-1908

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco
Disputes - international Guatemalan squatters continue to settle in Belize border region; OAS brokered Differendum in 2002 creating small adjustment to land boundary, large Guatemalan maritime corridor in Caribbean, joint ecological park for disputed Sapodilla Cays, and substantial US-UK financial package, but agreement was not brought to popular referendum leaving Guatemalan claim to southern half of Belize intact
Economic aid - recipient $250 million (2000 est.)
Economy - overview The agricultural sector accounts for about one-fourth of GDP, two-thirds of exports, and half of the labor force. Coffee, sugar, and bananas are the main products. Former President ARZU (1996-2000) worked to implement a program of economic liberalization and political modernization. President PORTILLO has continued the liberalization program but with more sporadic results. The 1996 signing of the peace accords, which ended 36 years of civil war, removed a major obstacle to foreign investment, but numerous corruption scandals associated with the PORTILLO administration have dampened investor confidence. The distribution of income remains highly unequal, with perhaps 75% of the population below the poverty line. Ongoing challenges include increasing the government revenues, negotiating further assistance from international donors, upgrading both government and private financial operations, and narrowing the trade deficit. A free trade agreement between the US and Central American countries promises greater access to US and neighboring markets.
Electricity - consumption 5.559 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 336 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 95 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 6.237 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 51.9%

hydro: 35.2%

nuclear: 0%

other: 12.9% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Volcan Tajumulco 4,211 m
Environment - current issues deforestation in the Peten rainforest; soil erosion; water pollution
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
Ethnic groups Mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish or assimilated Amerindian - in local Spanish called Ladino), approximately 55%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian, approximately 43%, whites and others 2%
Exchange rates quetzales per US dollar - 7.82 (2002), 7.86 (2001), 7.76 (2000), 7.39 (1999), 6.39 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Alfonso Antonio PORTILLO Cabrera (since 14 January 2000); Vice President Juan Francisco REYES Lopez (since 14 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Alfonso Antonio PORTILLO Cabrera (since 14 January 2000); Vice President Juan Francisco REYES Lopez (since 14 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 7 November 1999; runoff held 26 December 1999 (next to be held NA November 2003)

election results: Alfonso Antonio PORTILLO Cabrera elected president; percent of vote - Alfonso Antonio PORTILLO Cabrera (FRG) 68%, Oscar BERGER Perdomo (PAN) 32%
Exports 336 million kWh (2001)
Exports $2.7 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities coffee, sugar, bananas, fruits and vegetables, cardamom, meat, apparel, petroleum, electricity
Exports - partners US 58.7%, El Salvador 9.3%, Nicaragua 3.1% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and light blue with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) and a scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the original date of independence from Spain) all superimposed on a pair of crossed rifles and a pair of crossed swords and framed by a wreath
GDP purchasing power parity - $53.2 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 23%

industry: 20%

services: 57% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,900 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.2% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 15 30 N, 90 15 W
Geography - note no natural harbors on west coast
Highways total: 14,118 km

paved: 4,871 km (including 74 km of expressways)

unpaved: 9,247 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.6%

highest 10%: 46% (1998)
Illicit drugs major transit country for cocaine and heroin; minor producer of illicit opium poppy and cannabis for mostly domestic consumption; proximity to Mexico makes Guatemala a major staging area for drugs (cocaine and heroin shipments); money laundering is a serious problem; corruption is a major problem
Imports 95 million kWh (2001)
Imports $5.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, grain, fertilizers, electricity
Imports - partners US 33.2%, Mexico 9.9%, South Korea 8.2%, El Salvador 5.7%, China 4% (2002)
Independence 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 4.1% (1999)
Industries sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 37.92 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 38.72 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 37.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 8.1% (2002 est.)
International organization participation BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 5 (2000)
Irrigated land 1,250 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (thirteen members serve concurrent five-year terms and elect a president of the Court each year from among their number; the president of the Supreme Court of Justice also supervises trial judges around the country, who are named to five-year terms); Constitutional Court or Corte de Constitutcionalidad (five judges are elected for concurrent five-year terms by Congress, each serving one year as president of the Constitutional Court; one is elected by Congress, one elected by the Supreme Court of Justice, one appointed by the President, one elected by Superior Counsel of Universidad San Carlos de Guatemala, and one by Colegio de Abogados)
Labor force 4.2 million (1999 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 50%, industry 15%, services 35% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,687 km

border countries: Belize 266 km, El Salvador 203 km, Honduras 256 km, Mexico 962 km
Land use arable land: 12.54%

permanent crops: 5.03%

other: 82.43% (1998 est.)
Languages Spanish 60%, Amerindian languages 40% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca)
Legal system civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Congress of the Republic or Congreso de la Republica (140 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 9 November 2003 (next to be held NA November 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - GANA 49, FRG 42, UNE 33, PAN 16

note: for the 9 November 2003 election, the number of congressional seats increased to 140 from 113
Life expectancy at birth total population: 65.23 years

male: 64.31 years

female: 66.21 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 70.6%

male: 78%

female: 63.3% (2003 est.)
Location Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Mexico, and bordering the Gulf of Honduras (Caribbean Sea) between Honduras and Belize
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine none (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $120 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.6% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 3,320,077 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,167,270 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 151,294 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Nationality noun: Guatemalan(s)

adjective: Guatemalan
Natural hazards numerous volcanoes in mountains, with occasional violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast extremely susceptible to hurricanes and other tropical storms
Natural resources petroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle, hydropower
Net migration rate -1.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines oil 480 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Authentic Integral Development or DIA [Eduardo SUGER]; Democratic Union or UD [Rodolfo PAIZ Andrade]; Grand National Alliance or GANA [leader NA]; Green Party or LOV [Rodolfo ROSALES Garcis-Salaz]; Guatemalan Christian Democracy or DCG [Vinicio CEREZO Arevalo]; Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or URNG [Secretary General Alba ESTELA Maldonado]; Guatemalan Republican Front or FRG [Efrain RIOS Montt]; Movement for Guatemalan Unity or MGU [Jacobo ARBENZ Villanueva]; Movement for Principals and Values or MPV [Francisco BIANCHI]; National Advancement Party or PAN [Secretary General Leonel LOPEZ Rodas]; National Unity for Hope or UNE [Alvarado COLOM Caballeros]; New Nation Alliance or ANN, formed by an alliance of DIA, URNG, and several splinter groups most of whom subsequently defected [led by three co-equal partners - Nineth Varenca MONTENEGRO Cottom, Rodolfo BAUER Paiz, and Jorge Antonio BALSELLS TUT]; Patriot Party or PP [retired General Otto PEREZ Molina]; Progressive Liberator Party or PLP [Acisclo VALLADARES Molina]; Reform Movement or MR [Secretary General Alfredo SKINNER-KLEE]; Unionista Party [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders Agrarian Owners Group or UNAGRO; Alliance Against Impunity or AAI; Committee for Campesino Unity or CUC; Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF; Mutual Support Group or GAM
Population 13,909,384 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 75% (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 2.66% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Champerico, Puerto Barrios, Puerto Quetzal, San Jose, Santo Tomas de Castilla
Radio broadcast stations AM 130, FM 487, shortwave 15 (2000)
Railways total: 886 km

narrow gauge: 886 km 0.914-m gauge (2002)
Religions Roman Catholic, Protestant, indigenous Mayan beliefs
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal (active duty members of the armed forces may not vote and are restricted to their barracks on election day)
Telephone system general assessment: fairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemala

domestic: NA

international: connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 665,061 (June 2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 663,296 (September 2000)
Television broadcast stations 26 (plus 27 repeaters) (1997)
Terrain mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateau (Peten)
Total fertility rate 4.67 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 7.5% (1999 est.)
Waterways 990 km

note: 260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable during highwater season
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