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Finlandia (2008)

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Finlandia 2008 roku

 Finlandia
Podzial administracyjny 6 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Aland, Etela-Suomen Laani, Ita-Suomen Laani, Lansi-Suomen Laani, Lappi, Oulun Laani
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 16.9% (male 449,548/female 433,253)


15-64 years: 66.7% (male 1,768,996/female 1,727,143)


65 years and over: 16.4% (male 344,798/female 514,722) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
Lotniska 148 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 76


over 3,047 m: 2


2,438 to 3,047 m: 27


1,524 to 2,437 m: 10


914 to 1,523 m: 22


under 914 m: 15 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 72


914 to 1,523 m: 4


under 914 m: 68 (2007)
Terytorium total: 338,145 sq km


land: 304,473 sq km


water: 33,672 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Montana
Tlo historyczne Finlandia was a province and then a grand duchy under Szwecja from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Rosja after 1809. It won its complete independence w 1917. During Swiat War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit z some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now on par z Western Europe. A member of the Unia Europejska since 1995, Finlandia was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation w styczen 1999.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 10.42 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $124.2 billion


expenditures: $114 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Helsinki


geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E


time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
Linia brzegowa 1,250 km
Konstytucja 1 marzec 2000
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Finlandia


conventional short form: Finlandia


local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finlandia


local short form: Suomi/Finlandia
Wspolczynnik zgonow 9.93 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $271.2 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Marilyn WARE


embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki


mailing address: APO AE 09723


telephone: [358] (9) 616250


FAX: [358] (9) 6162 5800
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Pekka LINTU


chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800


FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030


consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje various groups w Finlandia advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $850.5 million (2005)
Ekonomia Finlandia has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy z per capita output roughly that of the UK, Francja, Niemcy, and Wlochy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Trade is important; exports equal two-fifths of Produkt krajowy brutto. Finlandia excels w high-tech exports, e.g., mobile phones. Except dla timber and several minerals, Finlandia depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components dla manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency w basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation dla the rural population. High unemployment remains a persistent problem. In 2007 Rosja announced plans to impose high tariffs on raw timber exported to Finlandia. The Finnish pulp and paper industry will be threatened if these duties are put into place w 2008 and 2009, and the matter is now being handled by the Unia Europejska.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 81.11 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 933 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 17.92 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 67.09 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m


highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.7%, Rosjan 0.4%, Estonian 0.2%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.2%, Sami 0.1%
Kurs waluty euros per US dollar - 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Tarja HALONEN (since 1 marzec 2000)


head of government: Prime Minister Matti VANHANEN (since 24 czerwiec 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Jyrki KATAINEN (since 19 kwiecien 2007)


cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to parliament


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a six-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 15 styczen 2006 (next to be held w styczen 2012); the president appoints the prime minister and deputy prime minister from the majority party or the majority coalition after parliamentary elections and the parliament must approve the appointment; Prime Minister VANHANEN reelected 17 kwiecien 2007


election results: percent of vote - Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 46.3%, Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 24.1%, Matti Vanhanen (Kesk) 18.6%, Heidi HAUTALA (VIHR) 3.5%; a runoff election between HALONEN and NIINISTO was held 29 styczen 2006 - HALONEN 51.8%, NIINISTO 48.2%; Matti VANHANEN relected prime minister; election results 121-71


note: government coalition - Kesk, SDP, and SFP
Eksport 933 million kWh (2005)
Eksport $92.62 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 118,300 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals; timber, paper, pulp (1999)
Eksport - partnerzy Niemcy 11.3%, Szwecja 10.5%, Rosja 10.1%, UK 6.5%, US 6.5%, Holandia 5.1% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi white z a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side w the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 2.5%


industry: 31.7%


services: 65.9% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 3.9% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 64 00 N, 26 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne long boundary z Rosja; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 4%


highest 10%: 22.6% (2000)
Import 17.92 billion kWh (2005)
Import $76.36 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 4.245 billion cu m (2005)
Import 333,400 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, grains
Import - partnerzy Niemcy 15.6%, Rosja 14%, Szwecja 13.7%, Holandia 6.6%, Chiny 5.4%, UK 4.7%, Dania 4.5% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 6 grudzien 1917 (from Rosja)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 2.5% (2007 est.)
Przemysl metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 3.52 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 3.84 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 2.7% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB (nonregional members), AfDB, Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 640 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (judges appointed by the president)
Sila robocza 2.68 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture and forestry 4.4%, industry 17.5%, construction 6%, commerce 22%, finance, insurance, and business services 12%, transport and communications 8%, public services 30.2% (2000 est.)
Granica total: 2,681 km


border countries: Norwegia 727 km, Szwecja 614 km, Rosja 1,340 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 6.54%


permanent crops: 0.02%


other: 93.44% (2005)
Jezyki Finnish 92% (official), Swedish 5.6% (official), other 2.4% (small Sami- and Rosjan-speaking minorities) (2003)
System prawny civil law system based on Swedish law; the president may request the Supreme Court to review laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 18 marzec 2007 (next to be held marzec 2011)


election results: percent of vote by party - Kesk 23.1%, Kok 22.3%, SDP 21.4%, VAS 8.8%, VIHR 8.5%, KD 4.9%, SFP 4.5%, True Finns 4.1%, other 3.4%; seats by party - Kesk 51, Kok 50, SDP 45, VAS 17, VIHR 15, SFP 9, KD 7, True Finns 5, other 1
Zywotnosc total population: 78.66 years


male: 75.15 years


female: 82.31 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 100%


male: 100%


female: 100% (2000 est.)
Lokalizacja Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finlandia, between Szwecja and Rosja
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finlandia - 3 nm)


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary z Szwecja


continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 92 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,362,014 GRT/1,002,280 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 26, chemical tanker 6, container 3, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 20, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 23, vehicle carrier 2


foreign-owned: 5 (Niemcy 2, Norwegia 1, Szwecja 2)


registered w other countries: 43 (Bahamas 8, Niemcy 4, Gibraltar 3, Wyspy Marshalla 2, Holandia 14, Norwegia 1, Szwecja 10, UK 1) (2007)
Wojsko Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army, Navy (includes coastal defense forces), Air Force (Suomen Ilmavoimat) (2006)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 6 grudzien (1917)
Narodowosc noun: Finn(s)


adjective: Finnish
Naturalne zagrozenia NA
Surowce naturalne timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone
Wspolczynnik migracji 0.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 694 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Center Party or Kesk [Matti VANHANEN]; Christian Democrats or KD [Paivi RASANEN]; Green Party or VIHR [Tarja CRONBERG]; Left Alliance or VAS [Martti KORHONEN] (composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative); National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Jyrki KATAINEN]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Eero HEINALUOMA]; Swedish People's Party or SFP [Stefan WALLIN]; True Finns [Timo SOINI]
Ludnosc 5,238,460 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 0.127% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 2, FM 186, shortwave 1 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 5,741 km


broad gauge: 5,741 km 1.524-m gauge (2,619 km electrified) (2006)
Religie Lutheran Church of Finlandia 84.2%, Orthodox Church 1.1%, other Christian 1.1%, other 0.1%, none 13.5% (2003)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.038 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.024 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female


total population: 0.958 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: modern system z excellent service


domestic: digital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive cellular network provide domestic needs


international: country code - 358; submarine cables provide links to Estonia and Szwecja; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Ocean Indyjski regions); note - Finlandia shares the Inmarsat earth station z the other Nordic countries (Dania, Islandia, Norwegia, and Szwecja)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 1.92 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 5.67 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 120 (plus 431 repeaters) (1999)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed z lakes and low hills
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.73 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 6.6% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 7,842 km


note: includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Rosja (2006)
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