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Finland (2003)

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Finland 2003 year

Administrative divisions 6 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Aland, Etela-Suomen Laani, Ita-Suomen Laani, Lansi-Suomen Laani, Lappi, Oulun Laani
Age structure 0-14 years: 17.7% (male 468,077; female 450,785)

15-64 years: 66.9% (male 1,753,760; female 1,719,253)

65 years and over: 15.4% (male 312,883; female 486,027) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
Airports 150 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 74

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 27

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 23

under 914 m: 12 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 76

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 72 (2002)
Area total: 337,030 sq km

land: 305,470 sq km

water: 31,560 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Montana
Background Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It finally won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now on par with Western Europe. As a member of the European Union, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.
Birth rate 10.54 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $36.1 billion

expenditures: $31 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Helsinki
Climate cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
Coastline 1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)
Constitution 1 March 2000
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Finland

conventional short form: Finland

local long form: Suomen Tasavalta

local short form: Suomi
Currency euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Death rate 9.82 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $30 billion (December 1993)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Bonnie McELVEEN-HUNTER

embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14A, FIN-00140, Helsinki

mailing address: APO AE 09723

telephone: [358] (9) 616250

FAX: [358] (9) 174681
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jukka Robert VALTASAARI

chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800

FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - donor ODA, $379 million (2001)
Economy - overview Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy, with per capita output roughly that of the UK, France, Germany, and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Trade is important, with exports equaling almost one-third of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. Rapidly increasing integration with Western Europe - Finland was one of the 11 countries joining the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) on 1 January 1999 - will dominate the economic picture over the next several years. Growth in 2003 was held back by the global slowdown but will pick up in 2004 provided the world economy suffers no further blows.
Electricity - consumption 76.18 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 1.81 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 11.77 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 71.2 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 39%

hydro: 18.7%

nuclear: 30.4%

other: 11.8% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Halti 1,328 m
Environment - current issues air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Finn 93%, Swede 6%, Sami 0.11%, Roma 0.12%, Tatar 0.02%
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President Tarja HALONEN (since 1 March 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Matti VANHANEN (since 24 June 2003) and Deputy Prime Minister Antti KALLIOMAKI (since 17 April 2003); note - former Prime Minister Anneli JAATTEENMAKI resigned

cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament

elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 16 January 2000 and 6 February 2000 (next to be held NA February 2006); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed from the majority party by the president after parliamentary elections

election results: Tarja HALONEN elected president; percent of vote - Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 51.6%, Esko AHO (Kesk) 48.4%

note: government coalition - KESK, SDP, and SFP
Exports 1.81 billion kWh (2001)
Exports $40.1 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports 101,000 bbl/day (2001)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals; timber, paper, pulp (1999)
Exports - partners Germany 11.8%, UK 9.6%, US 9%, Sweden 8.5%, Russia 6.6%, Netherlands 4.6%, France 4.5% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
GDP purchasing power parity - $133.8 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 4%

industry: 34%

services: 62% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $25,800 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.6% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 64 00 N, 26 00 E
Geography - note long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
Highways total: 77,943 km

paved: 50,305 km (including 750 km of expressways)

unpaved: 27,688 km (2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4.2%

highest 10%: 21.6% (1991)
Imports 11.77 billion kWh (2001)
Imports $31.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports 4.567 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports 318,300 bbl/day (2001)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, grains (1999)
Imports - partners Germany 14.5%, Sweden 10.9%, Russia 9.9%, UK 5.7%, France 4.3%, Denmark 4.2% (2002)
Independence 6 December 1917 (from Russia)
Industrial production growth rate 5% (2002 est.)
Industries metal products, electronics, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Infant mortality rate total: 3.73 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.21 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.23 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.9% (2002 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 3 (2002)
Irrigated land 640 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (judges appointed by the president)
Labor force 2.6 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation public services 32%, industry 22%, commerce 14%, finance, insurance, and business services 10%, agriculture and forestry 8%, transport and communications 8%, construction 6%
Land boundaries total: 2,628 km

border countries: Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km
Land use arable land: 6.98%

permanent crops: 0.01%

other: 93.01% (1998 est.)
Languages Finnish 93.4% (official), Swedish 5.9% (official), small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities
Legal system civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 16 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - Kesk 24.7%, SDP 24.5%, Kok 18.5%, VAS 9.9%, VIHR 8%, KD 5.3%, SFP 4.6%; seats by party - Kesk 55, SDP 53, Kok 40, VAS 19, VIHR 14, KD 7, SFP 8, others 4
Life expectancy at birth total population: 77.92 years

male: 74.28 years

female: 81.68 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 100% (1980 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%
Location Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
Map references Europe
Maritime claims continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive fishing zone: 12 NM; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden

territorial sea: 12 NM (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 NM)
Merchant marine total: 93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,181,687 GRT/1,185,653 DWT

ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 24, chemical tanker 5, container 1, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll off 32, short-sea passenger 9

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 1, Sweden 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (including Sea Guard)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.8 billion (FY98/99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2% (FY98/99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,230,934 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,016,693 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 31,926 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
Nationality noun: Finn(s)

adjective: Finnish
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver
Net migration rate 0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines gas 694 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Center Party or Kesk [Matti VANHANEN]; Christian Democrats or KD [Bjarne KALLIS]; Green League or VIHR [Osmo SOININVAARA]; Left Alliance or VAS (Communist) composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative [Suvi-Anne SIIMES]; National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Ville ITALA]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Paavo LIPPONEN]; Swedish People's Party or SFP [Jan-Erik ENESTAM]
Population 5,190,785 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.14% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Hamina, Helsinki, Kokkola, Kotka, Loviisa, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku, Uusikaupunki, Varkaus
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 186, shortwave 1 (1998)
Railways total: 5,850 km

broad gauge: 5,850 km 1.524-m gauge (2,400 km electrified) (2002)
Religions Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Russian Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other 1%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: modern system with excellent service

domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and an extensive cellular net provide domestic needs

international: 1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)
Telephones - main lines in use 2,847,900 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 3,728,600 (2001)
Television broadcast stations 120 (plus 431 repeaters) (1999)
Terrain mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Total fertility rate 1.7 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 8.5% (2002 est.)
Waterways 6,675 km

note: includes Saimaa Canal; 3,700 km suitable for large ships
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