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Finland (2008)

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Finland 2008 year

Administrative divisions 6 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Aland, Etela-Suomen Laani, Ita-Suomen Laani, Lansi-Suomen Laani, Lappi, Oulun Laani
Age structure 0-14 years: 16.9% (male 449,548/female 433,253)

15-64 years: 66.7% (male 1,768,996/female 1,727,143)

65 years and over: 16.4% (male 344,798/female 514,722) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
Airports 148 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 76

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 27

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 22

under 914 m: 15 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 72

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 68 (2007)
Area total: 338,145 sq km

land: 304,473 sq km

water: 33,672 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Montana
Background Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now on par with Western Europe. A member of the European Union since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.
Birth rate 10.42 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $124.2 billion

expenditures: $114 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Helsinki

geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Climate cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
Coastline 1,250 km
Constitution 1 March 2000
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Finland

conventional short form: Finland

local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland

local short form: Suomi/Finland
Death rate 9.93 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $271.2 billion (30 June 2007)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Marilyn WARE

embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki

mailing address: APO AE 09723

telephone: [358] (9) 616250

FAX: [358] (9) 6162 5800
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Pekka LINTU

chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800

FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Disputes - international various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands
Economic aid - donor ODA, $850.5 million (2005)
Economy - overview Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita output roughly that of the UK, France, Germany, and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Trade is important; exports equal two-fifths of GDP. Finland excels in high-tech exports, e.g., mobile phones. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. High unemployment remains a persistent problem. In 2007 Russia announced plans to impose high tariffs on raw timber exported to Finland. The Finnish pulp and paper industry will be threatened if these duties are put into place in 2008 and 2009, and the matter is now being handled by the European Union.
Electricity - consumption 81.11 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 933 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 17.92 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 67.09 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m
Environment - current issues air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.7%, Russian 0.4%, Estonian 0.2%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.2%, Sami 0.1%
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Tarja HALONEN (since 1 March 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Matti VANHANEN (since 24 June 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Jyrki KATAINEN (since 19 April 2007)

cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to parliament

elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 15 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2012); the president appoints the prime minister and deputy prime minister from the majority party or the majority coalition after parliamentary elections and the parliament must approve the appointment; Prime Minister VANHANEN reelected 17 April 2007

election results: percent of vote - Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 46.3%, Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 24.1%, Matti Vanhanen (Kesk) 18.6%, Heidi HAUTALA (VIHR) 3.5%; a runoff election between HALONEN and NIINISTO was held 29 January 2006 - HALONEN 51.8%, NIINISTO 48.2%; Matti VANHANEN relected prime minister; election results 121-71

note: government coalition - Kesk, SDP, and SFP
Exports 933 million kWh (2005)
Exports $92.62 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 118,300 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals; timber, paper, pulp (1999)
Exports - partners Germany 11.3%, Sweden 10.5%, Russia 10.1%, UK 6.5%, US 6.5%, Netherlands 5.1% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2.5%

industry: 31.7%

services: 65.9% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.9% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 64 00 N, 26 00 E
Geography - note long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4%

highest 10%: 22.6% (2000)
Imports 17.92 billion kWh (2005)
Imports $76.36 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 4.245 billion cu m (2005)
Imports 333,400 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, grains
Imports - partners Germany 15.6%, Russia 14%, Sweden 13.7%, Netherlands 6.6%, China 5.4%, UK 4.7%, Denmark 4.5% (2006)
Independence 6 December 1917 (from Russia)
Industrial production growth rate 2.5% (2007 est.)
Industries metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Infant mortality rate total: 3.52 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.84 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.7% (2007 est.)
International organization participation ADB (nonregional members), AfDB, Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Irrigated land 640 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (judges appointed by the president)
Labor force 2.68 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture and forestry 4.4%, industry 17.5%, construction 6%, commerce 22%, finance, insurance, and business services 12%, transport and communications 8%, public services 30.2% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,681 km

border countries: Norway 727 km, Sweden 614 km, Russia 1,340 km
Land use arable land: 6.54%

permanent crops: 0.02%

other: 93.44% (2005)
Languages Finnish 92% (official), Swedish 5.6% (official), other 2.4% (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities) (2003)
Legal system civil law system based on Swedish law; the president may request the Supreme Court to review laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 18 March 2007 (next to be held March 2011)

election results: percent of vote by party - Kesk 23.1%, Kok 22.3%, SDP 21.4%, VAS 8.8%, VIHR 8.5%, KD 4.9%, SFP 4.5%, True Finns 4.1%, other 3.4%; seats by party - Kesk 51, Kok 50, SDP 45, VAS 17, VIHR 15, SFP 9, KD 7, True Finns 5, other 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.66 years

male: 75.15 years

female: 82.31 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 100%

male: 100%

female: 100% (2000 est.)
Location Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
Map references Europe
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Merchant marine total: 92 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,362,014 GRT/1,002,280 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 26, chemical tanker 6, container 3, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 20, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 23, vehicle carrier 2

foreign-owned: 5 (Germany 2, Norway 1, Sweden 2)

registered in other countries: 43 (Bahamas 8, Germany 4, Gibraltar 3, Marshall Islands 2, Netherlands 14, Norway 1, Sweden 10, UK 1) (2007)
Military branches Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army, Navy (includes coastal defense forces), Air Force (Suomen Ilmavoimat) (2006)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
Nationality noun: Finn(s)

adjective: Finnish
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone
Net migration rate 0.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 694 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders Center Party or Kesk [Matti VANHANEN]; Christian Democrats or KD [Paivi RASANEN]; Green Party or VIHR [Tarja CRONBERG]; Left Alliance or VAS [Martti KORHONEN] (composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative); National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Jyrki KATAINEN]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Eero HEINALUOMA]; Swedish People's Party or SFP [Stefan WALLIN]; True Finns [Timo SOINI]
Population 5,238,460 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.127% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 186, shortwave 1 (1998)
Railways total: 5,741 km

broad gauge: 5,741 km 1.524-m gauge (2,619 km electrified) (2006)
Religions Lutheran Church of Finland 84.2%, Orthodox Church 1.1%, other Christian 1.1%, other 0.1%, none 13.5% (2003)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.038 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.024 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.958 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: modern system with excellent service

domestic: digital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive cellular network provide domestic needs

international: country code - 358; submarine cables provide links to Estonia and Sweden; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)
Telephones - main lines in use 1.92 million (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 5.67 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 120 (plus 431 repeaters) (1999)
Terrain mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Total fertility rate 1.73 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 6.6% (2007 est.)
Waterways 7,842 km

note: includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia (2006)
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