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Etiopia (2008)

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Etiopia 2008 roku

 Etiopia
Podzial administracyjny 9 ethnically-based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 43.4% (male 16,657,155/female 16,553,812)


15-64 years: 53.8% (male 20,558,026/female 20,639,076)


65 years and over: 2.7% (male 953,832/female 1,149,986) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes, qat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish
Lotniska 84 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 15


over 3,047 m: 3


2,438 to 3,047 m: 5


1,524 to 2,437 m: 5


914 to 1,523 m: 1


under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 69


over 3,047 m: 3


2,438 to 3,047 m: 5


1,524 to 2,437 m: 11


914 to 1,523 m: 29


under 914 m: 21 (2007)
Terytorium total: 1,127,127 sq km


land: 1,119,683 sq km


water: 7,444 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Tlo historyczne Unique among African countries, the ancient Etiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule z the exception of the 1936-41 Italian occupation during Swiat War II. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled w 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Etiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). A constitution was adopted w 1994, and Etiopia's first multiparty elections were held w 1995. A border war z Erytrea late w the 1990's ended z a peace treaty w grudzien 2000. The Erytrea-Etiopia Border Commission w listopad 2007 remotely demarcated the border by geographical coordinates, but final demarcation of the boundary on the ground is currently on hold due to Etiopian objections to an international commission's finding requiring it to surrender territory considered sensitive to Etiopia.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 37.39 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $2.944 billion


expenditures: $3.683 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Addis Ababa


geographic coordinates: 9 02 N, 38 42 E


time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical monsoon z wide topographic-induced variation
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja ratified 8 grudzien 1994, effective 22 sierpien 1995
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Etiopia


conventional short form: Etiopia


local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik


local short form: Ityop'iya


former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa


abbreviation: FDRE
Wspolczynnik zgonow 14.67 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $3.793 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Donald Y. YAMAMOTO


embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa


mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa


telephone: [251] 11-517-40-00


FAX: [251] 11-517-40-01
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Samuel ASSEFA


chancery: 3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 364-1200


FAX: [1] (202) 587-0195


consulate(s) general: Los Angeles


consulate(s): New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Erytrea and Etiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Erytrea-Etiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed w the listopad 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; UN Peacekeeping Mission to Etiopia and Erytrea (UNMEE), which has monitored the 25-km-wide Temporary Security Zone w Erytrea since 2000, is extended dla six months w 2007 despite Erytrean restrictions on its operations and reduced force of 17,000; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Etiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Etiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu w styczen 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities w Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Etiopia; civil unrest w eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary z Etiopia
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $1.6 billion (FY05/06)
Ekonomia Etiopia's poverty-stricken economy is based on agriculture, accounting dla almost half of Produkt krajowy brutto, 60% of exports, and 80% of total employment. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent drought and poor cultivation practices. Coffee is critical to the Etiopian economy z exports of some $350 million w 2006, but historically low prices have seen many farmers switching to qat to supplement income. The war z Erytrea w 1998-2000 and recurrent drought have buffeted the economy, w particular coffee production. In listopad 2001, Etiopia qualified dla debt relief from the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative, and w grudzien 2005 the IMF voted to forgive Etiopia's debt to the body. Under Etiopia's constitution, the state owns all land and provides long-term leases to the tenants; the system continues to hamper growth w the industrial sector as entrepreneurs are unable to use land as collateral dla loans. Drought struck again late w 2002, leading to a 3.3% decline w Produkt krajowy brutto w 2003. Normal weather patterns helped agricultural and Produkt krajowy brutto growth recover w 2004-07.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 2.577 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 2.864 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Denakil Depression -125 m


highest point: Ras Dejen 4,620 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages w some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection


signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
Grupy etniczne Oromo 32.1%, Amara 30.1%, Tigraway 6.2%, Somalie 5.9%, Guragie 4.3%, Sidama 3.5%, Welaita 2.4%, other 15.4% (1994 census)
Kurs waluty birr per US dollar - 8.96 (2007), 8.69 (2006), 8.68 (2005), 8.6356 (2004), 8.5997 (2003)


note: since 24 pazdziernik 2001 exchange rates are determined on a daily basis via interbank transactions regulated by the Central Bank
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President GIRMA Woldegiorgis (since 8 pazdziernik 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since sierpien 1995)


cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided dla w the grudzien 1994 constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives


elections: president elected by the House of People's Representatives dla a six-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 9 pazdziernik 2007 (next to be held w pazdziernik 2013); prime minister designated by the party w power following legislative elections


election results: GIRMA Woldegiorgis elected president; percent of vote by the House of People's Representatives - 79%
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $1.2 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary coffee, qat, gold, leather products, live animals, oilseeds
Eksport - partnerzy Niemcy 12.8%, Chiny 10.6%, Japonia 7.5%, US 6.8%, Arabia Saudyjska 5.9%, Dzibuti 5.8%, Wlochy 5% (2006)
Rok podatkowy 8 lipiec - 7 lipiec
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red z a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; Etiopia is the oldest independent country w Africa, and the three main colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 48.8%


industry: 12.9%


services: 38.3% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 9.8% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 8 00 N, 38 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost z the de jure independence of Erytrea on 24 maj 1993; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises w T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) w northwest Etiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated w Etiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.9%


highest 10%: 25.5% (2000)
Narkotyki transit hub dla heroin originating w Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined dla Europe, as well as cocaine destined dla markets w southern Africa; cultivates qat (khat) dla local use and regional export, principally to Dzibuti and Somalia (legal w all three countries); the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money laundering center
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $4.54 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 28,460 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles, cereals, textiles
Import - partnerzy Arabia Saudyjska 18%, **COUNTRY** 11.4%, Chiny 11.3%, Indie 8.1%, Wlochy 5.1%, Niemcy 4.1% (2006)
Niepodleglosc oldest independent country w Africa and one of the oldest w the world - at least 2,000 years
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 9% (2007 est.)
Przemysl food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, chemicals, metals processing, cement
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 91.92 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 101.57 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 81.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 15.9% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Nawadniane tereny 2,900 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Federal Supreme Court (the president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; dla other federal judges, the prime minister submits to the House of People's Representatives dla appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council)
Sila robocza 27.27 million (1999)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 80%


industry: 8%


services: 12% (1985)
Granica total: 5,328 km


border countries: Dzibuti 349 km, Erytrea 912 km, Kenia 861 km, Somalia 1,600 km, Sudan 1,606 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 10.01%


permanent crops: 0.65%


other: 89.34% (2005)
Jezyki Amarigna 32.7%, Oromigna 31.6%, Tigrigna 6.1%, Somaligna 6%, Guaragigna 3.5%, Sidamigna 3.5%, Hadiyigna 1.7%, other 14.8%, English (major foreign language taught w schools) (1994 census)
System prawny based on civil law; currently transitional mix of national and regional courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation (or upper chamber responsible dla interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues) (108 seats; members are chosen by state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives (or lower chamber responsible dla passing legislation) (547 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held 15 maj 2005 (next to be held w 2010)


election results: percent of vote - NA; seats by party - EPRDF 327, CUD 109, UEDF 52, SPDP 23, OFDM 11, BGPDUF 8, ANDP 8, independent 1, others 6, undeclared 2


note: some seats still remain vacant as detained opposition MPs did not take their seats, but those will be decided w the kwiecien 2008 byelection
Zywotnosc total population: 49.23 years


male: 48.06 years


female: 50.44 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 42.7%


male: 50.3%


female: 35.1% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Flota handlowa total: 10 ships (1000 GRT or over) 120,383 GRT/152,418 DWT


by type: cargo 8, roll on/roll off 2 (2007)
Wojsko Etiopian National Defense Force (ENDF): Ground Forces, Etiopian Air Force (ETAF) (2008)


note: Etiopia is landlocked and has no navy; following the secession of Erytrea, Etiopian naval facilities remained w Erytrean possession
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3% (2006)
Swieto narodowe National Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 maj (1991)
Narodowosc noun: Etiopian(s)


adjective: Etiopian
Naturalne zagrozenia geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
Surowce naturalne small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population


note: repatriation of Etiopian refugees residing w Sudan is expected to continue dla several years; some Sudanese, Somali, and Erytrean refugees, who fled to Etiopia from the fighting or famine w their own countries, continue to return to their homes (2007 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP; Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front or BGPDUF [Mulualem BESSE]; Coalition dla Unity and Democratic Party or CUDP [AYELE Chamisso] (awarded to AYELE 11 styczen 2008, but AYELE has virtually no support among former CUD MPs, other CUD MPs must now be affiliated z their original CUD-precursor parties); Etiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES Zenawi] (an alliance of Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM, Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO, the South Etiopian People's Democratic Front or SEPDF, and Tigrayan Peoples' Liberation Front or TPLF); Gurage Nationalities' Democratic Movement or GNDM; Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement or OFDM [BULCHA Demeksa]; Omoro People's Congress or OPC [IMERERA Gudina]; Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP; United Etiopian Democratic Forces or UEDF [BEYENE Petros]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Etiopian People's Patriotic Front or EPPF; Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF; Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]
Ludnosc 76,511,887


note: estimates dla this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result w lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes w the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 38.7% (FY05/06 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 2.272% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 8, FM 0, shortwave 1 (2001)
Linie kolejowe total: 699 km (Etiopian segment of the Addis Ababa-Dzibuti railroad)


narrow gauge: 699 km 1.000-m gauge


note: railway under joint control of Dzibuti and Etiopia but remains largely inoperable (2006)
Religie Christian 60.8% (Orthodox 50.6%, Protestant 10.2%), Muslim 32.8%, traditional 4.6%, other 1.8% (1994 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.006 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.996 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.829 male(s)/female


total population: 0.995 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: inadequate telephone system; the number of fixed lines and mobile telephones is increasing from a very small base; combined fixed and mobile-cellular teledensity is only about 2 per 100 persons


domestic: open-wire; microwave radio relay; radio communication w the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk service


international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Dzibuti; microwave radio relay to Kenia and Dzibuti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 2 Ocean Spokojny)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 725,000 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 866,700 (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 1 (plus 24 repeaters) (2001)
Uksztaltowanie terenu high plateau z central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 5.1 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia NA%
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