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Ethiopia (2001)

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Ethiopia 2001 year

Administrative divisions 9 ethnically-based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader): Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa); Afar; Amara, Binshangul Gumuz; Dire Dawa*; Gambela Hizboch; Hareri Hizb; Oromiya; Sumale; Tigray; YeDebub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region)
Age structure 0-14 years:
47.18% (male 15,647,675; female 15,442,348)

15-64 years:
50.03% (male 16,584,765; female 16,378,060)

65 years and over:
2.79% (male 834,825; female 1,004,201) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, sugarcane, potatoes, qat; hides, cattle, sheep, goats
Airports 86 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
20 (2000 est.)
Area total:
1,127,127 sq km

1,119,683 sq km

7,444 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Background Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule, one exception being the Italian occupation of 1936-41. In 1974 a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), in 1991. A constitution was adopted in 1994 and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A two and a half year border war with Eritrea that ended with a peace treaty on 12 December 2000 has strengthened the ruling coalition, but has hurt the nation's economy.
Birth rate 44.68 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$1 billion

$1.48 billion, including capital expenditures of $415 million (FY96/97)
Capital Addis Ababa
Climate tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution ratified December 1994; effective 22 August 1995
Country name conventional long form:
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

conventional short form:

local long form:
Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik

local short form:

Abyssinia, Italian East Africa

Currency birr (ETB)
Death rate 17.84 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $10 billion (1999 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Tibor P. NAGY, Jr.

Entoto Street, Addis Ababa

mailing address:
P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa

[251] (1) 550666

[251] (1) 551328
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador (vacant)

3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 364-1200

[1] (202) 686-9857
Disputes - international most of the southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a Provisional Administrative Line; as a result of the 12 December 2000 peace agreement ending a two year war with Eritrea, the UN will administer a 25-km wide temporary security zone within Eritrea until a joint boundary commission delimits and demarcates a final boundary; dispute over alignment of boundary with Eritrea led to armed conflict in 1998; a peace accord signed in December 2000 provides for UN-assisted arbitration and demarcation of the border
Economic aid - recipient $367 million (FY95/96)
Economy - overview Ethiopia's economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for half of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total employment. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent periods of drought and poor cultivation practices, and as many as 4.6 million people need food assistance annually. Coffee is critical to the Ethiopian economy, and Ethiopia earned $267 million in 1999 by exporting 105,000 metric tons. According to current estimates, coffee contributes 10% of Ethiopia's GDP. More than 15 million people (25% of the population) derive their livelihood from the coffee sector. Other exports include live animals, hides, gold, and qat. In December 1999, Ethiopia signed a $1.4 billion joint venture deal to develop a huge natural gas field in the Somali Regional State. The war with Eritrea forced the government to spend scarce resources on the military and to scale back ambitious development plans. Foreign investment has declined significantly. Government taxes imposed in late 1999 to raise money for the war depressed an already weak economy. The war forced the government to improve roads and other parts of the previously neglected infrastructure, but only certain regions of the nation benefited. Recovery from the war is mostly contingent on natural factors. A drought has continued into the end of 2000 and food relief is expected to be needed through mid-2001 at least. Ethiopia may receive Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief by the end of the year.
Electricity - consumption 1.511 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 1.625 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Denakil Depression -125 m

highest point:
Ras Dejen 4,620 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified:
Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigre 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%
Exchange rates birr per US dollar (end of period) - 8.3140 (December 2000), 8.3140 (2000), 8.1340 (1999), 7.5030 (1998), 6.8640 (1997), 6.4260 (1996)

since May 1993, the birr market rate has been determined in an interbank market supported by weekly wholesale auction
Executive branch chief of state:
President NEGASSO Gidada (since 22 August 1995)

head of government:
Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since NA August 1995)

Council of Ministers as provided for in the December 1994 constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives

president elected by the House of People's Representatives for a six-year term; election last held NA June 1995 (next to be held NA May 2001); prime minister designated by the party in power following legislative elections

election results:
NEGASSO Gidada elected president; percent of vote by the House of People's Representatives - NA%
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $460 million (f.o.b., 1999)
Exports - commodities coffee, gold, leather products, oilseeds, qat
Exports - partners Germany 16%, Japan 13%, Djibouti 10%, Saudi Arabia 7% (1999 est.)
Fiscal year 8 July - 7 July
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors
GDP purchasing power parity - $39.2 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


43% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $600 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 8 00 N, 38 00 E
Geography - note landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993
Highways total:
24,145 km

3,290 km

20,855 km (1998)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
33.7% (1995)
Illicit drugs transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (khat) for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $1.25 billion (f.o.b., 1999)
Imports - commodities food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles
Imports - partners Saudi Arabia 28%, Italy 10%, Russia 7%, US 6% (1999 est.)
Independence oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, cement
Infant mortality rate 99.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 1,900 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Federal Supreme Court (the president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; for other federal judges, the prime minister submits to the House of People's Representatives for appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council)
Labor force NA
Labor force - by occupation agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and services 12%, industry and construction 8% (1985)
Land boundaries total:
5,311 km

border countries:
Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 830 km, Somalia 1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

22% (1993 est.)
Languages Amharic, Tigrinya, Oromigna, Guaragigna, Somali, Arabic, other local languages, English (major foreign language taught in schools)
Legal system currently transitional mix of national and regional courts
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation or upper chamber (108 seats; members are chosen by state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives or lower chamber (548 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve five-year terms)

last held 14 May 2000 (next to be held NA May 2005)

election results:
percent of vote - NA%; seats - OPDO 177, ANDM 134, TPLF 38, WGGPDO 27, EPRDF 19, SPDO 18, GNDM 15, KSPDO 10, ANDP 8, GPRDF 7, SOPDM 7, BGPDUF 6, BMPDO 5, KAT 4, other regional political groupings 22, independents 8; note - 43 seats unconfirmed

irregularities and violence at a number of polling stations necessitated the rescheduling of voting in certain constituencies; voting postponed in Somali regional state because of severe drought
Life expectancy at birth total population:
44.68 years

43.88 years

45.51 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


25.3% (1995 est.)
Location Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total:
11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 85,382 GRT/108,526 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 6, container 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 3 (2000 est.)
Military branches Ground Forces, Air Force, Police, Militia

Ethiopia is landlocked and has no navy; following the independence of Eritrea, Ethiopian naval facilities remained in Eritrean possession and ships which belonged to the former Ethiopian Navy and based at Djibouti have been sold
Military expenditures - dollar figure $138 million (FY98/99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.5% (FY98/99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
14,537,884 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
7,581,815 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
703,625 (2001 est.)
National holiday National Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
Natural resources small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
Net migration rate 0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

repatriation of Ethiopians who fled to Sudan for refuge from war and famine in earlier years is expected to continue for several years; small numbers of Sudanese and Somali refugees, who fled to Ethiopia from the fighting or famine in their own countries, continue to return to their homes
Political parties and leaders Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP [leader NA]; All-Amhara People's Organization or AAPO [KEGNAZ MATCH Neguea Tibeb]; Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM [TEFERA Walwa]; Bench Madji People's Democratic Organization or BMPDO [leader NA]; Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front or BGPDUF [leader NA]; Coalition of Alternative Forces for Peace and Democracy or CAFPD [Kifle TIGNEH Abate and BEYENE Petros]; Ethiopian Democratic Unity Party or EDUP [Lt. Gen. TESFAYE Gebre Kidan]; Ethiopian National Democratic Party or ENDP [FEKADU Gedamu]; Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES Zenawi] (an alliance of the ANDM, OPDO, and TPLF); Gedeyo People's Revolutionary Democratic Movement or GPRDF [leader NA]; Gurange Nationalities Democratic Movement or GNDM [leader NA]; Kafa Shaka People's Democratic Organization or KSPDO [leader NA]; Kembata, Alabaa, and Tembaro or KAT [leader NA]; Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa Gudina]; Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO [KUMA Demeksa]; Sidama People's Democratic Organization or SPDO [leader NA]; South Omo People's Democratic Movement or SOPDM [leader NA]; Tigrai People's Liberation Front or TPLF [MELES Zenawi]; Walayta, Gamo, Gofa, Dawro, Konta People's Democratic Organization or WGGPDO [leader NA]; dozens of small parties
Political pressure groups and leaders Southern Ethiopia People's Democratic Coalition; numerous small, ethnically based groups have formed since the defeat of the former MENGISTU regime in 1991, including several Islamic militant groups
Population 65,891,874

estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 2.7% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors none; Ethiopia is landlocked and was by agreement with Eritrea using the ports of Assab and Massawa; since the border dispute with Eritrea flared, Ethiopia has used the port of Djibouti for nearly all of its imports
Radio broadcast stations AM 5, FM 0, shortwave 2 (1999)
Radios 11.75 million (1997)
Railways total:
681 km (Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)

narrow gauge:
681 km 1.000-m gauge

in April 1998, Djibouti and Ethiopia announced plans to revitalize the century-old railroad that links their capitals; since May 1998 Ethiopia has expended considerable effort to repair and maintain the lines
Religions Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%, other 3%-8%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.83 male(s)/female

total population:
1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
open wire and microwave radio relay system adequate for government use

open wire; microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; two domestic satellites provide the national trunk service

open wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 157,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 4,000 (1999)
Television broadcast stations 25 (1999)
Terrain high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Total fertility rate 7 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways none
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