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Canada (2003)

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Canada 2003 year

Administrative divisions 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
Age structure 0-14 years: 18.5% (male 3,052,005; female 2,903,007)

15-64 years: 68.6% (male 11,099,907; female 10,984,903)

65 years and over: 12.9% (male 1,774,262; female 2,393,029) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish
Airports 1,389 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 507

over 3,047 m: 18

2,438 to 3,047 m: 15

1,524 to 2,437 m: 149

914 to 1,523 m: 245

under 914 m: 80 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 882

1,524 to 2,437 m: 73

914 to 1,523 m: 363

under 914 m: 446 (2002)
Area total: 9,984,670 sq km

land: 9,093,507 sq km

water: 891,163 sq km
Area - comparative somewhat larger than the US
Background A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Its paramount political problem continues to be the relationship of the province of Quebec, with its French-speaking residents and unique culture, to the remainder of the country.
Birth rate 10.99 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $178.6 billion

expenditures: $161.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY 00/01 est.)
Capital Ottawa
Climate varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Coastline 202,080 km
Constitution 17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the machinery of the government was set up in the British North America Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Canada
Currency Canadian dollar (CAD)
Death rate 7.61 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $1.9 billion $NA (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Paul CELLUCCI

embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8

mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburgh, NY 13669-0430

telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470

FAX: [1] (613) 688-3097

consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael F. KERGIN

chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001

telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740

FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle

consulate(s): Miami, Princeton, San Francisco, and San Jose
Disputes - international managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; uncontested dispute with Denmark over Hans Island sovereignty in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland
Economic aid - donor ODA, $1.3 billion (1999)
Economy - overview As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. As a result of the close cross-border relationship, the economic sluggishness in the United States in 2001-02 had a negative impact on the Canadian economy. Real growth averaged nearly 3% during 1993-2000, but declined in 2001, with moderate recovery in 2002. Unemployment is up, with contraction in the manufacturing and natural resource sectors. Nevertheless, given its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Two shadows loom, the first being the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas, which has been raising the specter of a split in the federation. Another long-term concern is the flow south to the US of professionals lured by higher pay, lower taxes, and the immense high-tech infrastructure. A key strength in the economy is the substantial trade surplus.
Electricity - consumption 504.4 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 38.4 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 16.11 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 566.3 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 28%

hydro: 57.9%

nuclear: 12.9%

other: 1.3% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m
Environment - current issues air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Ethnic groups British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%
Exchange rates Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.57 (2002), 1.55 (2001), 1.49 (2000), 1.49 (1999), 1.48 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Adrienne CLARKSON (since 7 October 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Paul MARTIN (since 12 December 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Anne MCLELLAN (since 12 December 2003)

cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament

elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the governor general
Exports 38.4 billion kWh (2001)
Exports $260.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports 109 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Exports 2.008 million bbl/day (2001)
Exports - commodities motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum
Exports - partners US 87.7%, Japan 2%, UK 1.1% (2002)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width), with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the official colors of Canada are red and white
GDP purchasing power parity - $934.1 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2.3%

industry: 26.5%

services: 71.2% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $29,300 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.3% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 60 00 N, 95 00 W
Geography - note second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 85% of the population is concentrated within 300 km of the US border
Heliports 12 (2002)
Highways total: 1.408 million km

paved: 497,306 km (including 16,900 km of expressways)

unpaved: 911,494 km (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 23.8% (1994)
Illicit drugs illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector
Imports 16.11 billion kWh (2001)
Imports $229 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports 4.46 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports 1.145 million bbl/day (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods
Imports - partners US 62.6%, China 4.6%, Japan 4.4% (2002)
Independence 1 July 1867 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 2.2% (2002 est.)
Industries transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products; wood and paper products; fish products, petroleum and natural gas
Infant mortality rate total: 4.88 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.36 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.2% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURCA, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 760 (2000 est.)
Irrigated land 7,200 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)
Labor force 16.4 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation services 74%, manufacturing 15%, construction 5%, agriculture 3%, other 3% (2000)
Land boundaries total: 8,893 km

border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
Land use arable land: 4.94%

permanent crops: 0.02%

other: 95.04% (1998 est.)
Languages English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), other 17.5%
Legal system based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age; its normal limit is 105 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (301 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve for up to five-year terms)

elections: House of Commons - last held 27 November 2000 (next to be held by 2005)

election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Liberal Party 41%, Canadian Alliance 26%, Bloc Quebecois 11%, New Democratic Party 9%, Progressive Conservative Party 12%; seats by party - Liberal Party 172, Canadian Alliance 66, Bloc Quebecois 38, New Democratic Party 13, Progressive Conservative Party 12; note - percent of vote by party as of January 2002 - Liberal Party 51%, Canadian Alliance 10%, Bloc Quebecois 10%, New Democratic Party 9%, Progressive Conservative Party 18%; seats by party - Liberal Party 172, Canadian Alliance 66, Bloc Quebecois 38, New Democratic Party 13, Progressive Conservative Party 12
Life expectancy at birth total population: 79.83 years

male: 76.44 years

female: 83.38 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97% (1986 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%
Location Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US
Map references North America
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 122 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,840,272 GRT/2,740,864 DWT

ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 64, cargo 11, chemical tanker 6, combination bulk 2, combination ore/oil 1, container 1, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 18, railcar carrier 2, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 1

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 3, Monaco 16, United Kingdom 1, United States 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Canadian Armed Forces (comprising Land Forces Command, Maritime Command, Air Command, Communications Command, Training Command)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $7.861 billion (FY01/02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.1% (FY01/02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 8,391,120 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 7,158,016 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 16 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 216,488 (2003 est.)
National holiday Canada Day, 1 July (1867)
Nationality noun: Canadian(s)

adjective: Canadian
Natural hazards continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
Natural resources iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
Net migration rate 6.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km
Political parties and leaders Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Canadian Alliance [Stephen HARPER]; Liberal Party [Paul MARTIN]; New Democratic Party [Jack LAYTON]; Progressive Conservative Party [Peter MACKAY]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 32,207,113 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.94% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Hamilton, Montreal, New Westminster, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), St. John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Sydney, Trois-Rivieres, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor
Radio broadcast stations AM 535, FM 53, shortwave 6 (1998)
Railways total: 49,422 km

standard gauge: 49,422 km 1.435-m gauge (129 km electrified) (2002)
Religions Roman Catholic 46%, Protestant 36%, other 18%

note: based on the 1991 census
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology

domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations

international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
Telephones - main lines in use 20,802,900 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 8,751,300 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 80 (plus many repeaters) (1997)
Terrain mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
Total fertility rate 1.61 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 7.6% (2002 est.)
Waterways 3,000 km (including Saint Lawrence Seaway)
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