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Canada (2006)

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Canada 2006 year

Administrative divisions 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
Age structure 0-14 years: 17.6% (male 2,992,811/female 2,848,388)

15-64 years: 69% (male 11,482,452/female 11,368,286)

65 years and over: 13.3% (male 1,883,008/female 2,523,987) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish
Airports 1,337 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 509

over 3,047 m: 18

2,438 to 3,047 m: 15

1,524 to 2,437 m: 151

914 to 1,523 m: 248

under 914 m: 77 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 828

1,524 to 2,437 m: 66

914 to 1,523 m: 355

under 914 m: 407 (2006)
Area total: 9,984,670 sq km

land: 9,093,507 sq km

water: 891,163 sq km
Area - comparative somewhat larger than the US
Background A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Canada's paramount political problem is meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care and education services after a decade of budget cuts. Canada also faces questions about integrity in government following revelations regarding a corruption scandal in the federal government that has helped revive the fortunes of separatists in predominantly francophone Quebec.
Birth rate 10.78 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $159.6 billion

expenditures: $152.6 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2004)
Capital name: Ottawa

geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 40 W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

note: Canada is divided into six time zones
Climate varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Coastline 202,080 km
Constitution made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982, which transferred formal control over the constitution from Britain to Canada, and added a Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well as procedures for constitutional amendments
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Canada
Death rate 7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $439.8 billion (30 November 2005)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador David H. WILKINS

embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8

mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburgh, NY 13669-0430

telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470

FAX: [1] (613) 688-3082

consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael WILSON

chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001

telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740

FAX: [1] (202) 682-7701

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, Phoenix, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Tucson

consulate(s): Anchorage, Houston, Philadelphia, Princeton (New Jersey), Raleigh, San Jose (California)
Disputes - international managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; working toward greater cooperation with US in monitoring people and commodities crossing the border; uncontested sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland
Economic aid - donor ODA, $2.6 billion (2004)
Economy - overview As an affluent, high-tech industrial society in the trillion dollar class, Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and affluent living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. Given its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Top-notch fiscal management has produced consecutive balanced budgets since 1997, although public debate continues over how to manage the rising cost of the publicly funded healthcare system. Exports account for roughly a third of GDP. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with its principal trading partner, the US, which absorbs more than 85% of Canadian exports. Canada is the US' largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas, uranium, and electric power.
Electricity - consumption 520.9 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports 22 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports 33 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - production 566.3 billion kWh (2003)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m
Environment - current issues air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation
Ethnic groups British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%
Exchange rates Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.2118 (2005), 1.301 (2004), 1.4011 (2003), 1.5693 (2002), 1.5488 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Michaelle JEAN (since 27 September 2005)

head of government: Prime Minister Stephen HARPER (since 6 February 2006)

cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament

elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the governor general
Exports 22 billion kWh (2004)
Exports $364.8 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports 91.52 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Exports 1.6 million bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum
Exports - partners US 84.2%, Japan 2.1%, UK 1.8% (2005)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width), with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the official colors of Canada are red and white
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2.2%

industry: 29.4%

services: 68.4% (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.9% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 60 00 N, 95 00 W
Geography - note second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border
Heliports 319 (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 23.8% (1994)
Illicit drugs illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; transit point for ecstasy entering the US market; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector
Imports 33 billion kWh (2004)
Imports $317.7 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports 8.73 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Imports 963,000 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods
Imports - partners US 56.7%, China 7.8%, Mexico 3.8% (2005)
Independence 1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (independence recognized)
Industrial production growth rate 2.6% (2005 est.)
Industries transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum and natural gas
Infant mortality rate total: 4.69 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.15 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.2% (2005 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, AfDB, APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAFTA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SECI (observer), UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMOVIC, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Irrigated land 7,850 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)
Labor force 16.3 million (December 2005)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 2%, manufacturing 14%, construction 5%, services 75%, other 3% (2004)
Land boundaries total: 8,893 km

border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
Land use arable land: 4.57%

permanent crops: 0.65%

other: 94.78% (2005)
Languages English (official) 59.3%, French (official) 23.2%, other 17.5%
Legal system based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age; its normal limit is 105 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (308 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve for up to five-year terms)

elections: House of Commons - last held 23 January 2006 (next to be held in 2011)

election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Conservative Party 36.3%, Liberal Party 30.2%, New Democratic Party 17.5%, Bloc Quebecois 10.5%, Greens 4.5%, other 1%; seats by party - Conservative Party 124, Liberal Party 103, New Democratic Party 29, Bloc Quebecois 51, other 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 80.22 years

male: 76.86 years

female: 83.74 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (2003 est.)
Location Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US
Map references North America
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Merchant marine total: 173 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,129,243 GRT/2,716,340 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 62, cargo 10, chemical tanker 9, container 2, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 63, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 8

foreign-owned: 7 (Germany 3, Netherlands 1, Norway 1, US 2)

registered in other countries: 111 (Australia 1, Bahamas 18, Barbados 8, Cambodia 6, Cyprus 2, Denmark 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 28, Liberia 2, Malta 18, Marshall Islands 6, Panama 4, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 6, US 4, Vanuatu 5) (2006)
Military branches Canadian Forces: Land Forces Command, Maritime Command, Air Command, Canada Command (homeland security) (2006)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $9,801.7 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.1% (2003)
National holiday Canada Day, 1 July (1867)
Nationality noun: Canadian(s)

adjective: Canadian
Natural hazards continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
Natural resources iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
Net migration rate 5.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Pipelines crude and reined oil 23,564 km; liquid petroleum gas 74,980 km (2005)
Political parties and leaders Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Conservative Party of Canada (a merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party) [Stephen HARPER]; Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]; Liberal Party [Stephane DION]; New Democratic Party [Jack LAYTON]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 33,098,932 (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line 15.9%; note - this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO), a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line (2003)
Population growth rate 0.88% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 245, FM 582, shortwave 6 (2004)
Railways total: 48,467 km

standard gauge: 48,467 km 1.435-m gauge (2005)
Religions Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (including United Church 9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16% (2001 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology

domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations

international: country code - 1-xxx; 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
Telephones - main lines in use 18.276 million (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 16.6 million (2005)
Television broadcast stations 80 (plus many repeaters) (1997)
Terrain mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
Total fertility rate 1.61 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate 6.8% (2005 est.)
Waterways 631 km

note: Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States (2003)
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