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Brazylia (2008)

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Brazylia 2008 roku

 Brazylia
Podzial administracyjny 26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 25.3% (male 24,554,254/female 23,613,027)


15-64 years: 68.4% (male 64,437,140/female 65,523,447)


65 years and over: 6.3% (male 4,880,562/female 7,002,217) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
Lotniska 4,263 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 718


over 3,047 m: 7


2,438 to 3,047 m: 25


1,524 to 2,437 m: 167


914 to 1,523 m: 467


under 914 m: 52 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 3,545


1,524 to 2,437 m: 83


914 to 1,523 m: 1,555


under 914 m: 1,907 (2007)
Terytorium total: 8,511,965 sq km


land: 8,456,510 sq km


water: 55,455 sq km


note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than the US
Tlo historyczne Following three centuries under the rule of Portugalia, Brazylia became an independent nation w 1822 and a republic w 1889. By far the largest and most populous country w South America, Brazylia overcame more than half a century of military intervention w the governance of the country when w 1985 the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazylia continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool, it is today South America's leading economic power and a regional leader. Highly unequal income distribution remains a pressing problem.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 16.3 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $244 billion


expenditures: $219.9 billion (FY07)
Stolica name: Brasilia


geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W


time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday w pazdziernik; ends third Sunday w luty


note: Brazylia is divided into four time zones, including one dla the Fernando de Noronha Islands
Klimat mostly tropical, but temperate w south
Linia brzegowa 7,491 km
Konstytucja 5 pazdziernik 1988
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazylia


conventional short form: Brazylia


local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil


local short form: Brasil
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.19 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $230.3 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Clifford M. SOBEL


embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia


mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030


telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000


FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136


consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo


consulate(s): Recife
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio de Aguiar PATRIOTA


chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700


FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827


consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje unruly region at convergence of Argentyna-Brazylia-Paragwaj borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising dla extremist organizations; uncontested dispute z Urugwaj over certain islands w the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada boundary streams and the resulting tripoint z Argentyna
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $191.9 million (2005)
Ekonomia Characterized by large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazylia's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence w world markets. Having weathered 2001-03 financial turmoil, capital inflows are regaining strength and the currency has resumed appreciating. The appreciation has slowed export volume growth, but since 2004, Brazylia's growth has yielded increases w employment and real wages. The resilience w the economy stems from commodity-driven current account surpluses, and sound macroeconomic policies that have bolstered international reserves to historically high levels, reduced public debt, and allowed a significant decline w real interest rates. A floating exchange rate, an inflation-targeting regime, and a tight fiscal policy are the three pillars of the economic program. From 2003 to 2007, Brazylia ran record trade surpluses and recorded its first current account surpluses since 1992. Productivity gains coupled z high commodity prices contributed to the surge w exports. Brazylia improved its debt profile w 2006 by shifting its debt burden toward real denominated and domestically held instruments. LULA DA SILVA restated his commitment to fiscal responsibility by maintaining the country's primary surplus during the 2006 election. Following his second inauguration, LULA DA SILVA announced a package of further economic reforms to reduce taxes and increase investment w infrastructure. The government's goal of achieving strong growth while reducing the debt burden is likely to create inflationary pressures.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 368.5 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 160 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 39.2 billion kWh; note - supplied by Paragwaj (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 396.4 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Atlantycki 0 m


highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation w Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution w Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne white 53.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 38.5%, black 6.2%, other (includes Japoniaese, Arab, Amerindian) 0.9%, unspecified 0.7% (2000 census)
Kurs waluty reals per US dollar - 1.85 (2007 est.), 2.1761 (2006), 2.4344 (2005), 2.9251 (2004), 3.0771 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 styczen 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 styczen 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 styczen 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 styczen 2003)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla a single four-year term; election last held 1 pazdziernik 2006 z runoff 29 pazdziernik 2006 (next to be held 3 pazdziernik 2010 and, if necessary, 31 pazdziernik 2010)


election results: Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (PT) reelected president - 60.83%, Geraldo ALCKMIN (PSDB) 39.17%
Eksport 160 million kWh (2005)
Eksport $159.2 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 278,400 bbl/day (2005)
Eksport - towary transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, autos
Eksport - partnerzy US 17.8%, Argentyna 8.5%, Chiny 6.1%, Holandia 4.2%, Niemcy 4.1% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi green z a large yellow diamond w the center bearing a blue celestial globe z 27 white five-pointed stars (one dla each state and the Federal District) arranged w the same pattern as the night sky over Brazylia; the globe has a white equatorial band z the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 5.1%


industry: 30.8%


services: 64% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 4.9% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 10 00 S, 55 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne largest country w South America; shares common boundaries z every South American country except Chile and Ekwador
Ladowiska helikopterow 16 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 0.9%


highest 10%: 44.8% (2004)
Narkotyki illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation w the Amazon region, used dla domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country dla Boliwian, Kolumbian, and Peruvian cocaine headed dla Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station dla narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Kolumbia; upsurge w drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market dla Kolumbian, Boliwian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds earned w Brazylia are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity w the Tri-Border Terytorium
Import 39.2 billion kWh; note - supplied by Paragwaj (2005)
Import $115.6 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 8.478 billion cu m (2005)
Import 674,500 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics
Import - partnerzy US 16.2%, Argentyna 8.8%, Chiny 8.7%, Niemcy 7.1%, Nigeria 4.3%, Japonia 4.2% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 7 wrzesien 1822 (from Portugalia)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 4.5% (2007 est.)
Przemysl textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 27.62 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 31.27 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 23.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 4.1% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AfDB, BIS, CAN (associate), CPLP, CSN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 29,200 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Federal Tribunal or STF (11 ministers are appointed dla life by the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed dla life); note - though appointed "for life," judges, like all federal employees, have a mandatory retirement age of 70
Sila robocza 99.47 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 20%


industry: 14%


services: 66% (2003 est.)
Granica total: 16,885 km


border countries: Argentyna 1,261 km, Boliwia 3,423 km, Kolumbia 1,644 km, Gujana Francuska 730.4 km, Gujana 1,606 km, Paragwaj 1,365 km, Peru 2,995 km, Surinam 593 km, Urugwaj 1,068 km, Wenezuela 2,200 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 6.93%


permanent crops: 0.89%


other: 92.18% (2005)
Jezyki Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
System prawny based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members from each state and federal district elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third and two-thirds elected every four years, alternately) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)


elections: Federal Senate - last held 1 pazdziernik 2006 dla one-third of the Senate (next to be held w pazdziernik 2010 dla two-thirds of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 1 pazdziernik 2006 (next to be held w pazdziernik 2010)


election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PFL 6, PSDB 5, PMDB 4, PTB 3, PT 2, PDT 1, PSB 1, PL 1, PPS 1, PRTB 1, PP 1, PCdoB 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 89, PT 83, PFL 65, PSDB 65, PP 42, PSB 27, PDT 24, PL 23, PTB 22, PPS 21, PCdoB 13, PV 13, PSC 9, other 17; note - as of 1 styczen 2008: Federal Senate - seats by party - PMDB 20, DEM (formerly PFL) 14, PSDB 13, PT 12, PTB 6, PDT 5, PR 4, PRB 2, PSB 2, PCdoB 1, PP 1, PSOL 1; Chamber of Deputies - seats by party - PMDB 90, PT 83, PSDB 64, DEM (formerly PFL) 62, PP 41, PR 34, PSB 28, PDT 23, PTB 21, PPS 17, PV 13, PCdoB 13, PSC 7, PAN 4, PSOL 3, PMN 3, PTC 3, PHS 2, PTdoB 1, PRB 1
Zywotnosc total population: 72.24 years


male: 68.3 years


female: 76.38 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 88.6%


male: 88.4%


female: 88.8% (2004 est.)
Lokalizacja Eastern South America, bordering the Ocean Atlantycki
Lokalizacja na mapie South America
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 135 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,020,182 GRT/3,039,015 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 20, cargo 21, carrier 1, chemical tanker 6, container 9, liquefied gas 12, passenger/cargo 12, petroleum tanker 47, roll on/roll off 7


foreign-owned: 16 (Chile 1, Dania 2, Niemcy 7, Meksyk 1, Norwegia 1, Hiszpania 4)


registered w other countries: 5 (Bahamas 1, Ghana 1, Liberia 3) (2007)
Wojsko Brazyliaian Army, Brazyliaian Navy (Marinha do Brasil (MB), includes Naval Air and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazyliaian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.6% (2006 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 7 wrzesien (1822)
Narodowosc noun: Brazyliaian(s)


adjective: Brazyliaian
Naturalne zagrozenia recurring droughts w northeast; floods and occasional frost w south
Surowce naturalne bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi condensate/gas 244 km; gas 12,070 km; liquid petroleum gas 351 km; oil 5,214 km; refined products 4,410 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Brazyliaian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Federal Deputy Michel TEMER]; Brazyliaian Labor Party or PTB [Roberto JEFFERSON]; Brazyliaian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]; Brazyliaian Republican Party or PRB [Vitor Paulo Araujo DOS SANTOS]; Brazyliaian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Senator Sergio GUERRA]; Brazyliaian Socialist Party or PSB [Governor Eduardo Henrique Accioly CAMPOS]; Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]; Communist Party of Brazylia or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]; the Democrats or DEM (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL) [Federal Deputy Rodrigo MAIA]; Freedom and Socialism Party or PSOL [Heloisa HELENA]; Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz de Franca PENNA]; Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Paulo Roberto MATOS]; Labor Party of Brazylia or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE]; Liberal Front Party or PFL (now known as the Democrats or DEM); National Mobilization Party or PMN [Oscar Noronha FILHO]; Party of the Republic or PR [Sergio TAMER]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Federal Deputy Fernando CORUJA]; Progressive Party or PP [Francisco DORNELLES]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]; Workers' Party or PT [Ricardo Jose Ribeiro BERZOINI]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Landless Workers' Movement or MST; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
Ludnosc 190,010,647


note: Brazylia conducted a census w sierpien 2000, which reported a population of 169,799,170; that figure was about 3.3% lower than projections by the US Census Bureau, and is close to the implied underenumeration of 4.6% dla the 1991 census; estimates dla this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result w lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes w the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 31% (2005)
Przyrost naturalny 1.008% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which 91 are collocated z AM stations) (1999)
Linie kolejowe total: 29,295 km


broad gauge: 4,932 km 1.600-m gauge (939 km electrified)


standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge


narrow gauge: 23,773 km 1.000-m gauge (581 km electrified)


dual gauge: 396 km 1.000 m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (78 km electrified) (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic (nominal) 73.6%, Protestant 15.4%, Spiritualist 1.3%, Bantu/voodoo 0.3%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.2%, none 7.4% (2000 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.983 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.697 male(s)/female


total population: 0.976 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age; note - military conscripts do not vote
System telefoniczny general assessment: good working system; fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable w recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density has risen to nearly 55 per 100 persons


domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system z 64 earth stations; mobile-cellular usage has more than tripled w the past 5 years


international: country code - 55; landing point dla a number of submarine cables that provide direct links to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki), 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazyliasat B3 satellite earth station (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 38.8 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 99.919 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 138 (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly flat to rolling lowlands w north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.88 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9.8% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 50,000 km (most w areas remote from industry and population) (2007)
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