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Brazil (2003)

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Brazil 2003 year

Administrative divisions 26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
Age structure 0-14 years: 27.1% (male 25,151,855; female 24,196,506)

15-64 years: 67.2% (male 60,667,014; female 61,683,580)

65 years and over: 5.7% (male 4,232,784; female 6,100,865) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
Airports 3,590 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 665

over 3,047 m: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 23

1,524 to 2,437 m: 155

914 to 1,523 m: 435

under 914 m: 45 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 2,925

1,524 to 2,437 m: 70

914 to 1,523 m: 1,384

under 914 m: 1,471 (2002)
Area total: 8,511,965 sq km

land: 8,456,510 sq km

water: 55,455 sq km

note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
Area - comparative slightly smaller than the US
Background Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal, Brazil became an independent nation in 1822. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil has overcome more than half a century of military intervention in the governance of the country to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of the interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool, Brazil is today South America's leading economic power and a regional leader. Highly unequal income distribution remains a pressing problem.
Birth rate 17.67 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $100.6 billion

expenditures: $91.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000)
Capital Brasilia
Climate mostly tropical, but temperate in south
Coastline 7,491 km
Constitution 5 October 1988
Country name conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil

conventional short form: Brazil

local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil

local short form: Brasil
Currency real (BRL)
Death rate 6.13 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $222.4 billion (2002)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Donna J. HRINAK

embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia

mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030

telephone: [55] (61) 312-7000

FAX: [55] (61) 225-9136

consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo

consulate(s): Recife
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Rubens Antonio BARBOSA; note - Ambassador-Designate Roberto ABDENUR expected to arrive March 2004

chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700

FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco
Disputes - international unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and drug trafficking, and harbors Islamist militants; uncontested dispute with Uruguay over certain islands in the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada boundary streams and the resulting tripoint with Argentina
Economic aid - recipient $30 billion IMF disbursement (2002)
Economy - overview Possessing large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence in world markets. The maintenance of large current account deficits via capital account surpluses became problematic as investors became more risk averse to emerging markets as a consequence of the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the Russian bond default in August 1998. After crafting a fiscal adjustment program and pledging progress on structural reform, Brazil received a $41.5 billion IMF-led international support program in November 1998. In January 1999, the Brazilian Central Bank announced that the real would no longer be pegged to the US dollar. The consequent devaluation helped moderate the downturn in economic growth in 1999, and the country posted moderate GDP growth in 2000. Economic growth slowed considerably in 2001-03 - to less than 2% - because of a slowdown in major markets and the hiking of interest rates by the Central Bank to combat inflationary pressures. New president DA SILVA, who took office 1 January 2003, has given priority to reforming the complex tax code, trimming the overblown civil service pension system, and continuing the fight against inflation.
Electricity - consumption 335.9 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 37.19 billion kWh; note - supplied by Paraguay (2001)
Electricity - production 321.2 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 8.3%

hydro: 82.7%

nuclear: 4.4%

other: 4.6% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m
Environment - current issues deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish, Polish) 55%, mixed white and black 38%, black 6%, other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%
Exchange rates reals per US dollar - 2.92 (2002), 2.36 (2001), 1.83 (2000), 1.81 (1999), 1.16 (1998)

note: from October 1994 through 14 January 1999, the official rate was determined by a managed float; since 15 January 1999, the official rate floats independently with respect to the US dollar
Executive branch chief of state: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 6 October 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006); runoff election held 27 October 2002

election results: in runoff election 27 October 2002, Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (PT) was elected with 61.3% of the vote; Jose SERRA (PSDB) 38.7%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $59.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, autos
Exports - partners US 23.8%, Argentina 8.5%, Germany 5%, China 4.3%, Netherlands 4.2% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)
GDP purchasing power parity - $1.376 trillion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 8%

industry: 36%

services: 56% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $7,600 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.5% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 10 00 S, 55 00 W
Geography - note largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador
Highways total: 1,724,929 km

paved: 94,871 km

unpaved: 1,630,058 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 0.7%

highest 10%: 48% (1998)
Illicit drugs illicit producer of cannabis; minor coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Colombian and Peruvian cocaine headed for the US and Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds earned in Brazil are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area
Imports 37.19 billion kWh; note - supplied by Paraguay (2001)
Imports $46.2 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Imports 3.64 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery, electrical, and transport equipment, chemical products, oil
Imports - partners US 23.3%, Argentina 12.6%, Germany 8.7%, France 5.2% (2002)
Independence 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
Industrial production growth rate 2.3% (2002 est.)
Industries textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
Infant mortality rate total: 31.74 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 35.61 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 27.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 8.3% (2002)
International organization participation AfDB, BIS, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISET, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 50 (2000)
Irrigated land 26,560 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life)
Labor force 79 million (1999 est.)
Labor force - by occupation services 53%, agriculture 23%, industry 24%
Land boundaries total: 14,691 km

border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km
Land use arable land: 6.3%

permanent crops: 1.42%

other: 92.28% (1998 est.)
Languages Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
Legal system based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; three members from each state or federal district elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected after a four-year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: Federal Senate - last held 6 October 2002 for two-thirds of the Senate (next to be held NA October 2006 for one-third of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 6 October 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006)

election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party PMBD 19, PFL 19, PT 14, PSDB 11, PDT 5, PSB 4, PL 3, PTB 3, PPS 1, PSD 1, PPB 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PT 91, PFL 84, PMDB 74, PSDB 71, PPB 49, PL 26, PTB 26, PSB 22, PDT 21, PPS 15, PCdoB 12, PRONA 6, PV 5, other 11
Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.13 years

male: 67.16 years

female: 75.3 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 86.4%

male: 86.1%

female: 86.6% (2003 est.)
Location Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Map references South America
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 159 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 3,257,186 GRT/5,101,578 DWT

ships by type: bulk 29, cargo 23, chemical tanker 7, combination ore/oil 7, container 12, liquefied gas 11, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 53, roll on/roll off 10, short-sea passenger 1

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Chile 2, Germany 6, Greece 1, Monaco 1
(2002 est.)
Military branches Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes naval air and marines), Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $13.408 billion (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.9% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 51,381,048 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 34,347,078 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 1,744,148 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
Nationality noun: Brazilian(s)

adjective: Brazilian
Natural hazards recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
Natural resources bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
Net migration rate -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines condensate/gas 243 km; gas 10,984 km; liquid petroleum gas 341 km; oil 5,113 km; refined products 4,800 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Jose Carlos MARTINEZ]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Senator Jose ANIBAL]; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Miguel ARRAES]; Brazilian Progressive Party or PPB [Paulo Salim MALUF]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Renato RABELLO]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Leonel BRIZOLA]; Green Party or PV [leader NA]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Jorge BORNHAUSEN]; Liberal Party or PL [Deputy Valdemar COSTA Neto]; National Order Reconstruction Party or PRONA [Dr. Eneas CARNEIRO]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Senator Roberto FREIRE]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [leader NA]; Worker's Party or PT [Jose GENOINO]
Political pressure groups and leaders left wing of the Catholic Church; Landless Worker's Movement; labor unions allied to leftist Worker's Party
Population 182,032,604

note: Brazil took a count in August 2000, which reported a population of 169,799,170; that figure was about 3.3% lower than projections by the US Census Bureau, and is close to the implied underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census; estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 22% (1998 est.)
Population growth rate 1.15% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos, Vitoria
Radio broadcast stations AM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which 91 are collocated with AM stations) (1999)
Railways total: 31,543 km (1,981 km electrified)

broad gauge: 4,961 km 1.600-m gauge (692 km electrified)

standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge (630 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 25,992 km 1.000-m gauge (581 km electrified)

dual gauge: 396 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (78 km electrified) (2002)
Religions Roman Catholic (nominal) 80%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age
Telephone system general assessment: good working system

domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations

international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station
Telephones - main lines in use 17.039 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 4.4 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations 138 (1997)
Terrain mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
Total fertility rate 2.01 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 6.4% (2001 est.)
Waterways 50,000 km
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