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Azerbaijan (2003)

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Azerbaijan 2003 year

Administrative divisions 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Ali Bayramli Sahari*, Astara Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*, Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu
Age structure 0-14 years: 27.7% (male 1,101,320; female 1,064,214)

15-64 years: 64.7% (male 2,468,772; female 2,601,312)

65 years and over: 7.6% (male 236,683; female 358,463) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
Airports 71 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 27

over 3.047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 44

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 9

under 914 m: 27 (2002)
Area total: 86,600 sq km

land: 86,100 sq km

water: 500 sq km

note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maine
Background Azerbaijan - a nation with a Turkic and majority-Muslim population - regained its independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Despite a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost 16% of its territory and must support some 800,000 refugees and internally displaced persons as a result of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous and the promise of widespread wealth from Azerbaijan's undeveloped petroleum resources remains largely unfulfilled.
Birth rate 19.28 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $786 million

expenditures: $807 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Capital Baku (Baki)
Climate dry, semiarid steppe
Coastline 0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)
Constitution adopted 12 November 1995
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan

conventional short form: Azerbaijan

local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi

local short form: none

former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
Currency Azerbaijani manat (AZM)
Death rate 9.68 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $1.4 billion (2002)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ross L. WILSON

embassy: 83 Azadliq Prospekt, Baku 370007

mailing address: American Embassy Baku, Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050

telephone: [9] (9412) 98-03-35, 36, 37

FAX: [9] (9412) 90-66-71
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz PASHAYEV

chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500

FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
Disputes - international Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies about one-sixth of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratify Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on an even one-fifth allocation and challenges Azerbaijan's hydrocarbon exploration in disputed waters; ICJ decision expected to resolve dispute with Turkmenistan over sovereignty of certain Caspian oilfields
Economic aid - recipient ODA, $140 million (2000 est.)
Economy - overview Azerbaijan's number one export is oil. Azerbaijan's oil production declined through 1997 but has registered an increase every year since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to long-term oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in November 1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. One obstacle to economic progress is the need for stepped up foreign investment in the non-energy sector. A second obstacle is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term prospects will depend on world oil prices, the location of new pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's ability to manage its oil wealth.
Electricity - consumption 16.65 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 700 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 400 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 18.23 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 89.7%

hydro: 10.3%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m

highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m
Environment - current issues local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT as a pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Azeri 90%, Dagestani 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2%, other 2.3% (1998 est.)

note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region
Exchange rates Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 4,860.82 (2002), 4,656.58 (2001), 4,474.15 (2000), 4,120.17 (1999), 3,869 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003)

head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Abbas ABBASOV (since 10 November 2003)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly

elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term; election last held 15 October 2003 (next to be held NA October 2008); prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly

election results: Ilham ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV 76.8%, Isa GAMBAROV 14%
Exports 700 million kWh (2001)
Exports $2 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs
Exports - partners Italy 28.7%, Germany 17.7%, Israel 10.6%, France 8.4%, Georgia 6.7%, Russia 4.7% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band
GDP purchasing power parity - $28.61 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 20%

industry: 33%

services: 47% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 10.6% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 40 30 N, 47 30 E
Geography - note both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
Highways total: 24,981 km

paved: 23,057 km

unpaved: 1,924 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 27.8% (1995)
Illicit drugs limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
Imports 400 million kWh (2001)
Imports $1.8 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Imports 1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, oil products, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
Imports - partners Russia 17.8%, Turkey 11.9%, Germany 10.7%, France 7%, Kazakhstan 6.3%, China 6%, UK 5.5%, US 4.5% (2002)
Independence 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 6% (2002 est.)
Industries petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Infant mortality rate total: 82.41 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 84.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 80.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.6% (2002 est.)
International organization participation AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, GUUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Irrigated land 14,550 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court
Labor force 3.7 million (2001)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture and forestry 41%, industry 7%, services 52% (2001)
Land boundaries total: 2,013 km

border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km
Land use arable land: 19.31%

permanent crops: 3.04%

other: 77.65% (1998 est.)
Languages Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)
Legal system based on civil law system
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 4 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2005)

note: 100 members of the current parliament were elected on the basis of single mandate constituencies, while 25 were elected based on proportional balloting; as a result of a 24 August 2002 national referendum on changes to the constitution, all 125 members of the next parliament will be elected from single mandate constituencies

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NAP and allies 108, APF "Reform" 6, CSP 3, PNIA 2, Musavat Party 2, CPA 2, APF "Classic" 1, Compatriot Party 1

note: PNIA, Musavat, and APF "Classic" parties refused to take their seats
Life expectancy at birth total population: 63.16 years

male: 58.95 years

female: 67.58 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97%

male: 99%

female: 96% (1989 est.)
Location Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
Map references Asia
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 251,004 GRT/313,193 DWT

ships by type: cargo 13, petroleum tanker 40, roll on/roll off 2 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces
Military expenditures - dollar figure $121 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.6% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,159,450 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,727,340 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 82,925 (2003 est.)
National holiday Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaidzhan, 28 May (1918)
Nationality noun: Azerbaijani(s)

adjective: Azerbaijani
Natural hazards droughts
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina
Net migration rate -5.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines gas 5,001 km; oil 1,631 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "Reform" faction; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of "Classic" faction]; Civic Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Party for Azerbaijan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV, chairman]; Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shvkat HACIYEVA]; Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; New Azerbaijan Party or NAP [Heydar ALIYEV, chairman]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or PNIA [Etibar MAMMADLI, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP [Zardust ALIZADE]

note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties
Political pressure groups and leaders Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbaijani Forces (UPAF)
Population 7,830,764 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 49% (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 0.44% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Baku (Baki)
Radio broadcast stations AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)
Railways total: 2,122 km

broad gauge: 2,122 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (2002)
Religions Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)

note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and modernization; teledensity of 10 main lines per 100 persons is low (2002)

domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku and other industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan

international: the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; a satellite connection to Turkey enables Baku to reach about 200 additional countries, some of which are directly connected to Baku by satellite providers other than Turkey (1997)
Telephones - main lines in use 865,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 800,000 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Terrain large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Total fertility rate 2.34 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 16% (official rate is 1.2%) (2003 est.)
Waterways none
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