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Azerbaijan (2002)

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Azerbaijan 2002 year

Administrative divisions 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Ali Bayramli Sahari*, Astara Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*, Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu
Age structure 0-14 years: 28.3% (male 1,122,340; female 1,082,355)

15-64 years: 64.3% (male 2,441,830; female 2,577,109)

65 years and over: 7.4% (male 228,735; female 346,128) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
Airports 52 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 9

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 43

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 8

under 914 m: 28 (2002)
Area total: 86,600 sq km

land: 86,100 sq km

water: 500 sq km

note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maine
Background Azerbaijan - a nation with a Turkic and majority-Muslim population - regained its independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Despite a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost 16% of its territory and must support some 800,000 refugees and internally displaced persons as a result of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous and the promise of widespread wealth from Azerbaijan's undeveloped petroleum resources remains largely unfulfilled.
Birth rate 18.84 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $786 million

expenditures: $807 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001)
Capital Baku (Baki)
Climate dry, semiarid steppe
Coastline 0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)
Constitution adopted 12 November 1995
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan

conventional short form: Azerbaijan

local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi

local short form: none

former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
Currency Azerbaijani manat (AZM)
Death rate 9.61 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $1.4 billion (2002)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ross L. WILSON

embassy: 83 Azadliq Avenue, Baku 370007

mailing address: American Embassy Baku, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7050

telephone: [9] (9412) 98-03-35, 36, 37

FAX: [9] (9412) 90-66-71
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Elmar MAMEDYAROV

chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500

FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
Disputes - international Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies about one-sixth of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; Azerbaijan signed bilateral agreements with Russia delimiting the Caspian seabed, but littoral states are far from multilateral agreement on dividing the waters and seabed regimes - Iran insists on division of Caspian Sea into five equal sectors while Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan have generally agreed upon equidistant seabed boundaries; Iran threatens to conduct oil exploration in Azerbaijani-claimed waters, while interdicting Azerbaijani activities; Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan await ICJ decision to resolve sovereignty dispute over oilfields in the Caspian Sea
Economic aid - recipient ODA, $140 million (1996) (2000 est.)
Economy - overview Azerbaijan's number one export is oil. Azerbaijan's oil production declined through 1997 but has registered an increase every year since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in November 1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. An obstacle to economic progress, including stepped up foreign investment in the non-energy sector, is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term prospects will depend on world oil prices, the location of new pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's ability to manage its oil wealth.
Electricity - consumption 16.7 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 900 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 1.25 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 17.6 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 91%

hydro: 9%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m

highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m
Environment - current issues local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT as a pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Azeri 90%, Dagestani 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2%, other 2.3% (1998 est.)

note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region
Exchange rates Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 4,804 (11 February 2002), 4,656.58 (2001), 4,474.15 (2000), 4,120.17 (1999), 3,869 (1998), 3,985.38 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993)

head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 26 November 1996)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly

elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term; election last held 11 October 1998 (next to be held NA October 2003); prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly

election results: Heydar ALIYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Heydar ALIYEV 77.6%, Etibar MAMEDOV 11.8%, Nizami SULEYMANOV 8.2%
Exports 900 million kWh (2000)
Exports $2 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs
Exports - partners Italy 57.2%, Israel 7.1%, Georgia 4.5%, Russia 3.4%, Turkey 2.9% (2001)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band
GDP purchasing power parity - $27 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 20%

industry: 33%

services: 47% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,300 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6.1% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 40 30 N, 47 30 E
Geography - note both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
Highways total: 36,700 km

paved: 31,800 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)

unpaved: 4,900 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 28% (1995)
Illicit drugs limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
Imports 1.25 billion kWh (2000)
Imports $1.8 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, oil products, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
Imports - partners US 16.1%, Russia 10.7%, Turkey 10.4%, Kazakhstan 7.0%, Germany 5.1% (2001)
Independence 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 6% (2002 est.)
Industries petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Infant mortality rate 82.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.6% (2002 est.)
International organization participation AsDB, BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Irrigated land 14,550 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court
Labor force 3.7 million (1997) (2001)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture and forestry 41%, industry 7%, services 53% (1997) (2001)
Land boundaries total: 2,013 km

border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km
Land use arable land: 19.31%

permanent crops: 3.04%

other: 77.65% (1998 est.)
Languages Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)
Legal system based on civil law system
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 4 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2005)

note: 100 members of the curent parliament were elected on the basis of single mandate constituencies, while 25 were elected based on proportional balloting; as a result of a 24 August 2002 national referendum on changes to the constitution, all 125 members of the next parliament will be elected from single mandate constituencies

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NAP and allies 108, APF "Reform" 6, CSP 3, PNIA 2, Musavat Party 2, CPA 2, APF "Classic" 1, Compatriot Party 1

note: PNIA, Musavat, and APF "Classic" parties refused to take their seats
Life expectancy at birth total population: 63.06 years

male: 58.8 years

female: 67.53 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97%

male: 99%

female: 96% (1989 est.)
Location Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia
Map references Asia
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 54 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 246,051 GRT/306,756 DWT

ships by type: cargo 12, petroleum tanker 40, roll on/roll off 2 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces
Military expenditures - dollar figure $121 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.6% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,131,331 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,706,325 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 77,099 (2002 est.)
National holiday Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaidzhan, 28 May (1918)
Nationality noun: Azerbaijani(s)

adjective: Azerbaijani
Natural hazards droughts
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina
Net migration rate -5.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas 1,240 km
Political parties and leaders Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "Reform faction"; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of "Classic" faction]; Civic Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Party for Azerbaijan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV, chairman]; Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shvkat HACIYEVA]; Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; New Azerbaijan Party or NAP [Heydar ALIYEV, chairman]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or PNIA [Etibar MAMMADLIV, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP [Zardust ALIZADE]

note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties
Political pressure groups and leaders Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement
Population 7,798,497 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 49% (2002)
Population growth rate 0.38% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Baku (Baki)
Radio broadcast stations AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios 175,000 (1997)
Railways total: 2,125 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines

broad gauge: 2,125 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (1993 est.)
Religions Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)

note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and modernization; teledensity of 10 main lines per 100 persons is low (2002)

domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku and other industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan

international: the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; a satellite connection to Turkey enables Baku to reach about 200 additional countries, some of which are directly connected to Baku by satellite providers other than Turkey (1997)
Telephones - main lines in use 865,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 800,000 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Terrain large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Total fertility rate 2.29 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 16% (official rate is 1.1% for 2002) (2001 est.)
Waterways none
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