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Algieria (2008)

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Algieria 2008 roku

 Algieria
Podzial administracyjny 48 provinces (wilayat, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 27.2% (male 4,627,479/female 4,447,468)


15-64 years: 67.9% (male 11,413,121/female 11,235,096)


65 years and over: 4.8% (male 752,058/female 857,994) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle
Lotniska 150 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 52


over 3,047 m: 10


2,438 to 3,047 m: 27


1,524 to 2,437 m: 10


914 to 1,523 m: 4


under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 98


2,438 to 3,047 m: 3


1,524 to 2,437 m: 26


914 to 1,523 m: 44


under 914 m: 25 (2007)
Terytorium total: 2,381,740 sq km


land: 2,381,740 sq km


water: 0 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Tlo historyczne After more than a century of rule by Francja, Algierians fought through much of the 1950s to achieve independence w 1962. Algieria's primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), has dominated politics ever since. Many Algierians w the subsequent generation were not satisfied, however, and moved to counter the FLN's centrality w Algierian politics. The surprising first round success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) w the grudzien 1991 balloting spurred the Algierian army to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared would be an extremist-led government from assuming power. The army began a crackdown on the FIS that spurred FIS supporters to begin attacking government targets. The government later allowed elections featuring pro-government and moderate religious-based parties, but did not appease the activists who progressively widened their attacks. The fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw intense fighting between 1992-98 and which resulted w over 100,000 deaths - many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of villagers by extremists. The government gained the upper hand by the late-1990s and FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded w styczen 2000. However, small numbers of armed militants persist w confronting government forces and conducting ambushes and occasional attacks on villages. The army placed Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA w the presidency w 1999 w a fraudulent election but claimed neutrality w his 2004 landslide reelection victory. Longstanding problems continue to face BOUTEFLIKA w his second term, including the ethnic minority Berbers' ongoing autonomy campaign, large-scale unemployment, a shortage of housing, unreliable electrical and water supplies, government inefficiencies and corruption, and the continuing activities of extremist militants. The 2006 merger of the Salafist Group dla Preaching and Combat (GSPC) z al-Qaida (followed by a change of name to al-Qaida w the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb) signaled an increase w bombings, including high-profile, mass-casualty suicide attacks targeted against the Algierian government and Western interests. Algieria must also diversify its petroleum-based economy, which has yielded a large cash reserve but which has not been used to redress Algieria's many social and infrastructure problems.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 17.11 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $58.5 billion


expenditures: $41.35 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Algiers


geographic coordinates: 36 45 N, 3 03 E


time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters z hot, dry summers along coast; drier z cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common w summer
Linia brzegowa 998 km
Konstytucja 8 wrzesien 1963; revised 19 listopad 1976, effective 22 listopad 1976; revised 3 listopad 1988, 23 luty 1989, and 28 listopad 1996
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algieria


conventional short form: Algieria


local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah


local short form: Al Jaza'ir
Wspolczynnik zgonow 4.62 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $3.358 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Robert S. FORD


embassy: 5 Chemin Cheikh Bachir, El-Ibrahimi, El-Biar 16000 Algiers


mailing address: B. P. 408, Alger-Gare, 16030 Algiers


telephone: [213] 70-08-2000


FAX: [213] 21-60-7355
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Amine KHERBI


chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800


FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Algieria supports the Polisario Front exiled w Algieria and who represent the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic; Algieria rejects Moroccan administration of Sahara Zachodnia; most of the approximately 90,000 Sahara Zachodnian Sahrawi refugees are sheltered w camps w Tindouf, Algieria; Algieria's border z Maroko remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; Algieria remains concerned about armed bandits operating throughout the Sahel who sometimes destabilize southern Algierian towns; dormant disputes include Libian claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algieria and the FLN's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures w southeastern Maroko
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $370.6 million (2005 est.)
Ekonomia The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting dla roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of Produkt krajowy brutto, and over 95% of export earnings. Algieria has the eighth-largest reserves of natural gas w the world and is the fourth-largest gas exporter; it ranks 14th w oil reserves. Sustained high oil prices w recent years have helped improve Algieria's financial and macroeconomic indicators. Algieria is running substantial trade surpluses and building up record foreign exchange reserves. Algieria has decreased its external debt to less than 10% of Produkt krajowy brutto after repaying its Paris Club and London Club debt w 2006. Real Produkt krajowy brutto has risen due to higher oil output and increased government spending. The government's continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector, however, has had little success w reducing high unemployment and improving living standards. Structural reform within the economy, such as development of the banking sector and the construction of infrastructure, moves ahead slowly hampered by corruption and bureaucratic resistance.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 27.52 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 275 million kWh (2005 est.)
Elektrycznosc - import 359 million kWh (2005 est.)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 31.91 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m


highest point: Tahat 3,003 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, w particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%


note: almost all Algierians are Berber w origin, not Arab; the minority who identify themselves as Berber live mostly w the mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algiers; the Berbers are also Muslim but identify z their Berber rather than Arab cultural heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, dla autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has offered to begin sponsoring teaching Berber language w schools
Kurs waluty Algierian dinars per US dollar - 69.9 (2007), 72.647 (2006), 73.276 (2005), 72.061 (2004), 77.395 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 kwiecien 1999)


head of government: Prime Minister Abdelaziz BELKHADEM


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 8 kwiecien 2004 (next to be held w kwiecien 2009); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president dla second term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA 85%, Ali BENFLIS 6.4%, Abdellah DJABALLAH 5%
Eksport 275 million kWh (2005 est.)
Eksport $63.3 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 62.6 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 1.724 million bbl/day (2004 est.)
Eksport - towary petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%
Eksport - partnerzy US 27.2%, Wlochy 17%, Hiszpania 9.7%, Francja 8.8%, Kanada 8.1%, Belgia 4.3% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary


note: the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 8.1%


industry: 61%


services: 30.9% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 4.6% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 28 00 N, 3 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne second-largest country w Africa (after Sudan)
Ladowiska helikopterow 2 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.8%


highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)
Import 359 million kWh (2005 est.)
Import $26.08 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 12,390 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Import - towary capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Import - partnerzy Francja 22%, Wlochy 8.6%, Chiny 8.5%, Niemcy 5.9%, Hiszpania 5.9%, US 4.8%, Turcja 4.5% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 5 lipiec 1962 (from Francja)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5% (2007 est.)
Przemysl petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 28.78 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 32.45 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 24.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 4.6% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BIS, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Nawadniane tereny 5,690 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court
Sila robocza 9.38 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 14%, industry 13.4%, construction and public works 10%, trade 14.6%, government 32%, other 16% (2003 est.)
Granica total: 6,343 km


border countries: Libia 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauretania 463 km, Maroko 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunezja 965 km, Sahara Zachodnia 42 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 3.17%


permanent crops: 0.28%


other: 96.55% (2005)
Jezyki Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
System prawny socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts w ad hoc Konstytucjaal Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament consists of the National People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Al-Shabi Al-Watani (389 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Council of Nations (Senate) (144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote; to serve six-year terms; the constitution requires half the council to be renewed every three years)


elections: National People's Assembly - last held 17 maj 2007 (next to be held w 2012); Council of Nations (Senate) - last held 28 grudzien 2006 (next to be held w 2009)


election results: National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 136, RND 61, MSP 52, PT 26, RCD 19, FNA 13, other 49, independents 33; Council of Nations - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 29, RND 12, MSP 3, RCD 1, independents 3, presidential appointees (unknown affiliation) 24; note - Council seating reflects the number of replaced council members rather than the whole Council
Zywotnosc total population: 73.52 years


male: 71.91 years


female: 75.21 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 69.9%


male: 79.6%


female: 60.1% (2002 est.)
Lokalizacja Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Maroko and Tunezja
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
Flota handlowa total: 35 ships (1000 GRT or over) 694,686 GRT/707,251 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 8, chemical tanker 2, liquefied gas 9, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 2, specialized tanker 1


foreign-owned: 12 (UK 12) (2007)
Wojsko National Popular Army (ANP; includes Land Forces), Algierian National Navy (MRA), Air Force (QJJ), Territorial Air Defense Force (2005)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3.3% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Revolution Day, 1 listopad (1954)
Narodowosc noun: Algierian(s)


adjective: Algierian
Naturalne zagrozenia mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods w rainy season
Surowce naturalne petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi condensate 1,532 km; gas 13,861 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,408 km; oil 6,878 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Ahd 54 [Ali Fauzi REBAINE]; Algierian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA]; Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed kwiecien 1992) [Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR]; National Entente Movement or MEN [Ali BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Abdelaziz BELKHADEM, secretary general]; National Reform Movement or Islah (formerly MRN) [Mohamed BOULAHIA]; National Renewal Party or PRA [Mohamed BENSMAIL]; Rally dla Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said SADI]; Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement [Fatah RABEI]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL]; Society of Peace Movement or MSP [Boudjerra SOLTANI]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUNE]


note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted w marzec 1997
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow The Algierian Human Rights League or LADDH [Hocine ZEHOUANE]; SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]; Somoud [Ali MERABET]
Ludnosc 33,333,216 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 25% (2005 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.216% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)
Linie kolejowe total: 3,973 km


standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.435-m gauge (283 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2006)
Religie Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.016 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.877 male(s)/female


total population: 1.015 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: a weak network of fixed-main lines, which remains low at less than 10 telephones per 100 persons, is partially offset by the rapid increase w mobile cellular subscribership; w 2006, combined fixed-line and mobile telephone density surpassed 70 telephones per 100 persons


domestic: privatization of Algieria's telecommunications sector began w 2000; three mobile cellular licenses have been issued and, w 2005, a consortium led by Egipt's Orascom Telecom won a 15-year license to build and operate a fixed-line network w Algieria; the license will allow Orascom to develop high-speed data and other specialized services and contribute to meeting the large unfulfilled demand dla basic residential telephony; internet broadband services began w 2003 z approximately 200,000 subscribers w 2006


international: country code - 213; landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber- optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East and Asia; microwave radio relay to Wlochy, Francja, Hiszpania, Maroko, and Tunezja; coaxial cable to Maroko and Tunezja; participant w Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 51 (Intelsat, Intersputnik, and Arabsat) (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 2.841 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 20.998 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.86 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 14.1% (2007 est.)
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