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Albania (2004)

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Albania 2004 year

Administrative divisions 12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Qarku i Beratit, Qarku i Dibres, Qarku i Durresit, Qarku i Elbasanit, Qarku i Fierit, Qarku i Gjirokastres, Qarku i Korces, Qarku i Kukesit, Qarku i Lezhes, Qarku i Shkodres, Qarku i Tiranes, Qarku i Vlores
Age structure 0-14 years: 26.4% (male 489,363; female 446,586)

15-64 years: 65.3% (male 1,184,670; female 1,130,065)

65 years and over: 8.3% (male 135,177; female 158,947) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products
Airports 11 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 8

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 4 (2004 est.)
Area total: 28,748 sq km

land: 27,398 sq km

water: 1,350 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maryland
Background Between 1990 and 1992 Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven difficult as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, a dilapidated infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks with links to high government officials, and disruptive political opponents. International observers judged parliamentary elections in 2001 and local elections in 2003 to be acceptable and a step toward democratic development, but identified serious deficiencies. Many of these deficiencies have been addressed through bi-partisan changes to the electoral code in 2003 and 2005, but implementation of these changes will not be demonstrated until parliamentary elections in July 2005.
Birth rate 15.08 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.36 billion

expenditures: $1.627 billion, including capital expenditures of $406 million (2003 est.)
Capital Tirana
Climate mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter
Coastline 362 km
Constitution a constitution was adopted by popular referendum on 28 November 1998
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Albania

conventional short form: Albania

local long form: Republika e Shqiperise

local short form: Shqiperia

former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania
Currency lek (ALL)
Death rate 5.02 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $1.41 billion (2003)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Marcie B. RIES

embassy: Rruga Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana

mailing address: U. S. Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Dulles, VA 20189-9510

telephone: [355] (4) 247285

FAX: [355] (4) 374957 and [355] (4) 232222
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Fatos TARIFA

chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942

FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342
Disputes - international the Albanian Government calls for the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians in neighboring countries, and the peaceful resolution of interethnic disputes; some ethnic Albanian groups in neighboring countries advocate for a "greater Albania," but the idea has little appeal among Albanian nationals
Economic aid - recipient ODA: $315 million (top donors were Italy, EU, Germany) (2000 est.)
Economy - overview Poor and backward by European standards, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. The government has taken measures to curb violent crime and to spur economic activity and trade. The economy is bolstered by remittances from abroad of $400-$600 million annually, mostly from Greece and Italy; this helps offset the sizable trade deficit. Agriculture, which accounts for one-half of GDP, is held back because of frequent drought and the need to modernize equipment and consolidate small plots of land. Severe energy shortages and antiquated and inadequate infrastructure make it difficult to attract and sustain foreign investment. The government plans to boost energy imports to relieve the shortages and is moving slowly to improve the poor national road and rail network, a long-standing barrier to sustained economic growth.
Electricity - consumption 5.898 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 221 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 1.2 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 5.289 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,764 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Roma (Gypsy), Serb, and Macedonian or Bulgarian) (1989 est.)

note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)
Exchange rates leke per US dollar - 121.863 (2003), 140.155 (2002), 143.485 (2001), 143.709 (2000), 137.691 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President of the Republic Alfred MOISIU (since 24 July 2002)

head of government: Prime Minister Fatos NANO (since 31 July 2002)

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, and approved by Parliament

elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 24 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Alfred MOISIU elected president; People's Assembly vote by number - total votes 116, for 97, against 19
Exports 221 million kWh (2001)
Exports $425 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco
Exports - partners Italy 74.9%, Greece 12.8%, Germany 3.4% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description red with a black two-headed eagle in the center
GDP purchasing power parity - $16.13 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 47.5%

industry: 24.6%

services: 27.8% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,500 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 7% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 41 00 N, 20 00 E
Geography - note strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)
Heliports 1 (2003 est.)
Highways total: 18,000 km

paved: 5,400 km

unpaved: 12,600 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Illicit drugs increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium and growing cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and expanding in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with regional trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal aliens
Imports 1.2 billion kWh (2001)
Imports $1.76 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals
Imports - partners Italy 33.6%, Greece 20.2%, Turkey 6.6%, Germany 5.7% (2003)
Independence 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)
Industrial production growth rate 2.7% (2003 est.)
Industries food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
Infant mortality rate total: 22.31 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 23.01 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 21.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.4% (2003)
Irrigated land 3,400 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term), and multiple appeals and district courts
Labor force 1.35 million (not including 352,000 emigrant workers) (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 57%, non-agricultural private sector 20%, public sector 23% (2003 est.)
Land boundaries total: 720 km

border countries: Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km
Land use arable land: 21.09%

permanent crops: 4.42%

other: 74.49% (2001)
Languages Albanian (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek, Vlach, Romani, Slavic dialects
Legal system has a civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; has accepted jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court for its citizens
Legislative branch unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor (140 seats; 100 are elected by direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote for four-year terms)

elections: last held 24 June 2001 with subsequent rounds on 8 July, 22 July, 29 July, 19 August 2001 (next to be held July 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - PS 41.5%, PD and coalition allies 36.8%, PDR 5.2%, PSD 3.6%, PBDNJ 2.6%, PASH (now PAA) 2.6%, PAD 2.5%; seats by party - PS 73, PD and coalition allies 46, PDR 6, PSD 4, PBDNJ 3, PASH (now PAA) 3, PAD 3, independents 2; note - seats by party as of January 2005: PS 65, PD and coalition allies 46, LSI 9, PDR 6, PSD 3, PBDNJ 3, PASH (now PAA) 3, PAD 3, PDS 1, independents 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 77.06 years

male: 74.37 years

female: 80.02 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 9 and over can read and write

total population: 86.5%

male: 93.3%

female: 79.5% (2003 est.)
Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro
Map references Europe
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Merchant marine total: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 40,878 GRT/62,676 DWT

by type: bulk 1, cargo 19, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: Denmark 1, Honduras 1, Netherlands 1

registered in other countries: 7 (2004 est.)
Military branches General Staff Headquarters, Land Forces Command (Army), Naval Forces Command, Air Forces Command, Doctrine and Exercises Command, Logistics Support Command
Military expenditures - dollar figure $56.5 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.49% (FY02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 956,107 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 775,422 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 36,584 (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 28 November (1912)
Nationality noun: Albanian(s)

adjective: Albanian
Natural hazards destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber, hydropower
Net migration rate -4.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines gas 339 km; oil 207 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Agrarian Environmentalist Party or PAA [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Nikolle LESI]; Communist Party of Albania or PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance Party or PAD [Neritan CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement Party or PLL [Ekrem SPAHIU]; Liberal Union Party or PBL [Arjan STAROVA]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Adriatik ALIMADHI]; New Democratic Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQIRI]; Renewed Democratic Party or PDR [Dashamir SHEHI]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy Party or PDS [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Movement for Integration or LSI [Ilir META]; Socialist Party or PS (formerly the Albanian Party of Labor) [Fatos NANO]; Union for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vangjel DULE]
Political pressure groups and leaders Confederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kastriot MUCO]; Front for Albanian National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]; Omonia [Jani JANI]; Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]
Population 3,544,808 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 30% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 0.51% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore
Radio broadcast stations AM 13, FM 4, shortwave 2 (2001)
Railways total: 447 km

standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)
Religions Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%

note: percentages are estimates; there are no available current statistics on religious affiliation; all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice
Sex ratio at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female

total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: Despite new investment in fixed lines, the density of main lines remains the lowest in Europe with roughly 8 lines per 100 people. However, cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective.

domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile phone service has been available since 1996; by 2003 two companies were providing mobile services at a greater density than some of Albania's Balkan neighbors

international: country code - 355; inadequate fixed main lines; adequate cellular connections; international traffic carried by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2003)
Telephones - main lines in use 255,000 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1.1 million (2003)
Television broadcast stations 3 (plus 58 repeaters) (2001)
Terrain mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
Total fertility rate 2.05 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 15.8% officially; may be as high as 30% (2003 est.)
Waterways 43 km (2004)
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