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Albania (2001)

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Albania 2001 year

Administrative divisions 36 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth) and 1 municipality* (bashki); Berat, Bulqize, Delvine, Devoll (Bilisht), Diber (Peshkopi), Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Has (Krume), Kavaje, Kolonje (Erseke), Korce, Kruje, Kucove, Kukes, Kurbin, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Malesi e Madhe (Koplik), Mallakaster (Ballsh), Mat (Burrel), Mirdite (Rreshen), Peqin, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar (Corovode), Tepelene, Tirane (Tirana), Tirane* (Tirana), Tropoje (Bajram Curri), Vlore

administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Age structure 0-14 years:
29.53% (male 536,495; female 500,026)

15-64 years:
63.48% (male 1,073,351; female 1,155,115)

65 years and over:
6.99% (male 107,476; female 138,021) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products
Airports 11 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:
3 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
4 (2000 est.)
Area total:
28,748 sq km

27,398 sq km

1,350 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maryland
Background In 1990 Albania ended 44 years of xenophobic communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven difficult as corrupt governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, a dilapidated infrastructure, widespread gangsterism, and disruptive political opponents. International observers judged local elections in 2000 to be acceptable and a step toward democratic development, but serious deficiencies remain to be corrected before the the 2001 parliamentary elections.
Birth rate 19.01 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$393 million

$676 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)
Capital Tirana
Climate mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter
Coastline 362 km
Constitution a new constitution was adopted by popular referendum on 28 November 1998; note - the opposition Democratic Party boycotted the vote
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Albania

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republika e Shqiperise

local short form:

People's Socialist Republic of Albania
Currency lek (ALL)
Death rate 6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $1 billion (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Joseph LIMPRECHT

Rruga Elbasanit Labinoti 103, Tirana

mailing address:
PSC 59, Box 100(A), APO AE 09624

[355] (42) 32875, 33520

[355] (42) 32222
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Petrit BUSHATI

2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 223-4942

[1] (202) 628-7342
Disputes - international the Albanian Government supports protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders but has downplayed them to further its primary foreign policy goal of regional cooperation; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Yugoslavia; Albanians in The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to public-sector jobs, and representation in government
Economic aid - recipient $NA; aid for energy from China, Germany, Norway (2000)
Economy - overview Poor by European standards, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more open-market economy. The economy rebounded in 1993-95 after a severe depression accompanying the end of the previous centrally planned system in 1990 and 1991. However, a weakening of government resolve to maintain stabilization policies in the election year of 1996 contributed to renewal of inflationary pressures, spurred by the budget deficit which exceeded 12% of GDP. The collapse of financial pyramid schemes in early 1997 - which had attracted deposits from a substantial portion of Albania's population - triggered severe social unrest which led to more than 1,500 deaths, widespread destruction of property, and a 7% drop in GDP. The government has taken measures to curb violent crime and to revive economic activity and trade. The economy is bolstered by remittances from some 20% of the labor force that works abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy. These remittances supplement GDP and help offset the large foreign trade deficit. Most agricultural land was privatized in 1992, substantially improving peasant incomes. In 1998, Albania recovered the 7% drop in GDP of 1997 and pushed ahead by 8% in 1999 and by 7.5% in 2000. International aid helped defray the high costs of receiving and returning refugees from the Kosovo conflict. Privatization scored some successes in 2000, but other reforms lagged.
Electricity - consumption 5.379 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 100 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 600 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 5.332 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point:
Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,753 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)

in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)
Exchange rates leke per US dollar - 146.08 (December 2000),143.71 (2000) 137.69 (1999), 150.63 (1998), 148.93 (1997), 104.50 (1996); note - leke is the plural of lek
Executive branch chief of state:
President of the Republic Rexhep MEIDANI (since 24 July 1997)

head of government:
Prime Minister Ilir META (since 29 October 1999)

Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president

president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 24 July 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
Rexhep MEIDANI elected president; People's Assembly vote by number - total votes 122, for 110, against 3, abstained 2, invalid 7
Exports 100 million kWh (1999)
Exports $310 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco
Exports - partners Italy 67%, Greece 15%, Germany 5%, Austria 2%, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 2% (2000)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description red with a black two-headed eagle in the center
GDP purchasing power parity - $10.5 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


21% (2000)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 7.5% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 41 00 N, 20 00 E
Geography - note strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)
Heliports 1 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
18,000 km

5,400 km

12,600 km (1998 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Illicit drugs increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium and cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and rapidly expanding in Europe
Imports 600 million kWh (2000)
Imports $1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals
Imports - partners Italy 37%, Greece 28%, Turkey 6%, Germany 6%, Bulgaria 3% (2000)
Independence 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)
Industrial production growth rate 9% (2000 est.)
Industries food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
Infant mortality rate 39.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACCT (associate), BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 7 (2000)
Irrigated land 3,410 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term)
Labor force 1.692 million (including 352,000 emigrant workers and 261,000 domestically unemployed) (1994 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 50%, industry and services 50%
Land boundaries total:
720 km

border countries:
Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Yugoslavia 287 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

21% (1993 est.)
Languages Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek
Legal system has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor (155 seats; most members are elected by direct popular vote and some by proportional vote for four-year terms)

last held 29 June 1997 (next held 24 June 2001, 2nd round 8 July 2001)

election results:
percent of vote by party - PS 53.36%, PD 25.33%, PSD 2.5%, PBDNJ 2.78%, PBK 2.36%, PAD 2.85%, PR 2.25%, PLL 3.09%, PDK 1.00%, PBSD 0.84%; seats by party - PS 101, PD 27, PSD 8, PBDNJ 4, PBK 3, PAD 2, PR 2, PLL 2, PDK 1, PBSD 1, PUK 1, independents 3
Life expectancy at birth total population:
71.83 years

69.01 years

74.87 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 9 and over can read and write

total population:
93% (1997 est.)


Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Map references Europe
Maritime claims continental shelf:
200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 17,797 GRT/26,324 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 9 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards
Military expenditures - dollar figure $42 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.5% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
870,768 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
712,763 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 19 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
35,792 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 28 November (1912)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; drought
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel, hydropower
Net migration rate -3.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1991)
Political parties and leaders Albanian National Front (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Abaz ERMENJI]; Albanian Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Albanian Socialist Party or PS (formerly the Albania Workers Party) [Fatos NANO, chairman]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Zef BUSHATI]; Democratic Alliance or PAD [Neritan CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Group of Reformist Democrats [Leonard NDOKA]; Liberal Union Party [Teodor LACO]; note - Teodor LACO of the Liberal Union Party was leader of the Social Democratic Union of Albania or PBSD; Movement of Legality Party or PLL [Nderim KUPI]; OMONIA [Vagjelis DULES]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQUIRI]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Unity for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vasil MELO, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 3,510,484 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 19.6% (1996 est.)
Population growth rate 0.88% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore
Radio broadcast stations AM 16, FM 3, shortwave 2 (1999)
Radios 810,000 (1997)
Railways total:
447 km

standard gauge:
447 km 1.435-m gauge (2001)
Religions Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%

all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice
Sex ratio at birth:
1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.78 male(s)/female

total population:
0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Telephone system general assessment:
Albania has the poorest telephone service in Europe with fewer than two telephones per 100 inhabitants; it is doubtful that every village has telephone service

obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it to build fences

inadequate; international traffic carried by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece
Telephones - main lines in use 87,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 3,100 (1999)
Television broadcast stations 9 (plus 264 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
Total fertility rate 2.32 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 16% (2000 est.) officially; may be as high as 25%
Waterways 43 km

includes Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)
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