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Wielka Brytania (2002)

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Wielka Brytania 2002 roku

 Wielka Brytania
Podzial administracyjny England - 47 boroughs, 36 counties*, 29 London boroughs**, 12 cities and boroughs***, 10 districts****, 12 cities*****, 3 royal boroughs******; Barking and Dagenham**, Barnet**, Barnsley, Bath and North East Somerset****, Bedfordshire*, Bexley**, Birmingham***, Blackburn z Darwen, Blackpool, Bolton, Bournemouth, Bracknell Forest, Bradford***, Brent**, Brighton and Hove, City of Bristol*****, Bromley**, Buckinghamshire*, Bury, Calderdale, Cambridgeshire*, Camden**, Cheshire*, Cornwall*, Coventry***, Croydon**, Cumbria*, Darlington, Derby*****, Derbyshire*, Devon*, Doncaster, Dorset*, Dudley, Durham*, Ealing**, East Riding of Yorkshire****, East Sussex*, Enfield**, Essex*, Gateshead, Gloucestershire*, Greenwich**, Hackney**, Halton, Hammersmith and Fulham**, Hampshire*, Haringey**, Harrow**, Hartlepool, Havering**, Herefordshire*, Hertfordshire*, Hillingdon**, Hounslow**, Isle of Wight*, Islington**, Kensington and Chelsea******, Kent*, City of Kingston upon Hull*****, Kingston upon Thames******, Kirklees, Knowsley, Lambeth**, Lancashire*, Leeds***, Leicester*****, Leicestershire*, Lewisham**, Lincolnshire*, Liverpool***, City of London*****, Luton, Manchester***, Medway, Merton**, Middlesbrough, Milton Keynes, Newcastle upon Tyne***, Newham**, Norfolk*, Northamptonshire*, North East Lincolnshire****, North Lincolnshire****, North Somerset****, North Tyneside, Northumberland*, North Yorkshire*, Nottingham*****, Nottinghamshire*, Oldham, Oxfordshire*, Peterborough*****, Plymouth*****, Poole, Portsmouth*****, Reading, Redbridge**, Redcar and Cleveland, Richmond upon Thames**, Rochdale, Rotherham, Rutland****, Salford***, Shropshire*, Sandwell, Sefton, Sheffield***, Slough, Solihull, Somerset*, Southampton*****, Southend-on-Sea, South Gloucestershire****, South Tyneside, Southwark**, Staffordshire*, St. Helens, Stockport, Stockton-on-Tees, Stoke-on-Trent*****, Suffolk*, Sunderland***, Surrey*, Sutton**, Swindon, Tameside, Telford and Wrekin****, Thurrock, Torbay, Tower Hamlets**, Trafford, Wakefield***, Walsall, Waltham Forest**, Wandsworth**, Warrington, Warwickshire*, West Berkshire****, Westminster***, West Sussex*, Wigan, Wiltshire*, Windsor and Maidenhead******, Wirral, Wokingham****, Wolverhampton, Worcestershire*, York*****; Northern Irlandia - 24 districts, 2 cities*, 6 counties**; Antrim, County Antrim**, Ards, Armagh, County Armagh**, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Banbridge, Belfast*, Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine, Cookstown, Craigavon, Down, County Down**, Dungannon, Fermanagh, County Fermanagh**, Larne, Limavady, Lisburn, County Londonderry**, Derry*, Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North Down, Omagh, Strabane, County Tyrone**; Scotland - 32 council areas; Aberdeen City, Aberdeenshire, Angus, Argyll and Bute, The Scottish Borders, Clackmannanshire, Dumfries and Galloway, Dundee City, East Ayrshire, East Dunbartonshire, East Lothian, East Renfrewshire, City of Edinburgh, Falkirk, Fife, Glasgow City, Highland, Inverclyde, Midlothian, Moray, North Ayrshire, North Lanarkshire, Orkney Islands, Perth and Kinross, Renfrewshire, Shetland Islands, South Ayrshire, South Lanarkshire, Stirling, West Dunbartonshire, Eilean Siar (Western Isles), West Lothian; Wales - 11 county boroughs, 9 counties*, 2 cities and counties**; Isle of Anglesey*, Blaenau Gwent, Bridgend, Caerphilly, Cardiff**, Ceredigion*, Carmarthenshire*, Conwy, Denbighshire*, Flintshire*, Gwynedd, Merthyr Tydfil, Monmouthshire*, Neath Port Talbot, Newport, Pembrokeshire*, Powys*, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Swansea**, Torfaen, The Vale of Glamorgan*, Wrexham
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 18.7% (male 5,732,385; female 5,443,900)

15-64 years: 65.5% (male 19,803,478; female 19,381,734)

65 years and over: 15.8% (male 3,931,463; female 5,485,042) (2002 est.)
Rolinictwo cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry; fish
Lotniska 470 (2001)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 334

over 3,047 m: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 33

1,524 to 2,437 m: 151

914 to 1,523 m: 83

under 914 m: 59 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 136

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 22

under 914 m: 112 (2002)
Terytorium total: 244,820 sq km

land: 241,590 sq km

water: 3,230 sq km

note: includes Rockall and Shetland Islands
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Oregon
Tlo historyczne Great Britain, the dominant industrial and maritime power of the 19th century, played a leading role w developing parliamentary democracy and w advancing literature and science. At its zenith, the British Empire stretched over one-fourth of the earth's surface. The first half of the 20th century saw the UK's strength seriously depleted w two Swiat Wars. The second half witnessed the dismantling of the Empire and the UK rebuilding itself into a modern and prosperous European nation. As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council, a founding member of NATO, and of the Commonwealth, the UK pursues a global approach to foreign policy; it currently is weighing the degree of its integration z continental Europe. A member of the EU, it chose to remain outside the European Monetary Union dla the time being. Konstytucjaal reform is also a significant issue w the UK. The Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly dla Wales, and the Northern Irlandia Assembly were established w 1999.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 11.34 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budzet revenues: $565 billion

expenditures: $540 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY01)
Stolica London
Klimat temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast
Linia brzegowa 12,429 km
Konstytucja unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Wielka Brytania of Great Britain and Northern Irlandia

conventional short form: Wielka Brytania

abbreviation: UK
Waluta British pound (GBP)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $NA
Zalezne tereny Anguilla, Bermudy, Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego, Brytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze, Kajmany, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Jersey, Wyspa Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn, Swieta Helena, Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy, Turks i Caicos
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador William S. FARISH

embassy: 24/31 Grosvenor Square, London, W1A1AE

mailing address: PSC 801, Box 40, FPO AE 09498-4040

telephone: [44] (0) 207499-9000 (switchboard)

FAX: [44] (0) 207 629-8288

consulate(s) general: Belfast, Edinburgh
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Sir Christopher J. R. MEYER

chancery: 3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 588-6500

FAX: [1] (202) 588-7870

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco

consulate(s): Dallas, Denver, Miami, and Seattle
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Hiszpania and UK are discussing "total shared sovereignty" over Gibraltar, subject to a constitutional referendum by Gibraltarians, who have largely expressed opposition to any form of cession to Hiszpania; Mauritius and Seszele claim the Chagos Archipelago (Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego) and its former inhabitants, who reside chiefly w Mauritius, but w 2001 were granted UK citizenship and the right to repatriation since eviction w 1965; Argentyna claims the Falklandy and Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Dania and Islandia; territorial claim w Antarktyda (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim and partially overlaps Chilean claim; disputes z Islandia, Dania, and Irlandia over the Wyspy Owcze continental shelf boundary outside 200 NM
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $4.5 billion (2000)
Ekonomia The UK, a leading trading power and financial center, is one of the quartet of trillion dollar economies of Western Europe. Over the past two decades the government has greatly reduced public ownership and contained the growth of social welfare programs. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs z only 1% of the labor force. The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves; primary energy production accounts dla 10% of Produkt krajowy brutto, one of the highest shares of any industrial nation. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and business services, account by far dla the largest proportion of Produkt krajowy brutto while industry continues to decline w importance. Produkt krajowy brutto growth slipped w 2001-02 as the global downturn, the high value of the pound, and the bursting of the "new economy" bubble hurt manufacturing and exports. Still, the economy is one of the strongest w Europe; inflation, interest rates, and unemployment remain low. The relatively good economic performance has complicated the BLAIR government's efforts to make a case dla Britain to join the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). The Prime Minister has pledged to hold a public referendum if membership meets Chancellor of the Exchequer BROWN's five economic "tests." Scheduled dla assessment by mid-2003, the tests will determine whether joining EMU would have a positive effect on British investment, employment, and growth. Critics point out, however, that the economy is thriving outside of EMU, and they point to public opinion polls that continue to show a majority of Britons opposed to the single currency. Meantime, the government has been speeding up the improvement of education, transport, and health services, at a cost w higher taxes.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 345.03 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 134 million kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - import 14.308 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 355.76 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel: 73%

hydro: 1%

nuclear: 23%

other: 2% (2000)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Fenland -4 m

highest point: Ben Nevis 1,343 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy continues to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (has met Kyoto Protocol target of a 12.5% reduction from 1990 levels and intends to meet the legally binding target and move towards a domestic goal of a 20% cut w emissions by 2010); by 2005 the Government aims to reduce the amount of industrial and commercial waste disposed of w landfill sites to 85% of 1998 levels and to recycle or compost at least 25% of household waste, increasing to 33% by 2015; between 1998-99 and 1999-2000, household recycling increased from 8.8% to 10.3%
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol
Grupy etniczne English 81.5%, Scottish 9.6%, Irish 2.4%, Welsh 1.9%, Ulster 1.8%, West Indien, Indien, Pakistani, and other 2.8%
Kurs waluty British pounds per US dollar - 0.6981 (styczen 2002), 0.6944 (2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180 (1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106 (1997)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the queen, born 14 listopad 1948)

head of government: Prime Minister Anthony (Tony) BLAIR (since 2 maj 1997)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually the prime minister
Eksport 134 million kWh (2000)
Eksport $286.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Eksport - towary manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco
Eksport - partnerzy EU 58.1% (Niemcy 12.5%, Francja 10.2%, Holandia 7.7%, Irlandia 7.3%), US 15.4% (2001)
Rok podatkowy 1 kwiecien - 31 marzec
Opis flagi blue z the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) edged w white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Irlandia) and which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); properly known as the Union Flag, but commonly called the Union Jack; the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis dla a number of other flags including other Commonwealth countries and their constituent states or provinces, as well as British overseas territories
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $1.52 trillion (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 1%

industry: 25%

services: 74% (2000)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $25,300 (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 1.6% (2002 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 54 00 N, 2 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from Francja and now linked by tunnel under the English Channel; because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters
Ladowiska helikopterow 11 (2002)
Autostrady total: 371,603 km

paved: 371,603 km (including 3,303 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (1998 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 28% (1995)
Narkotyki gateway country dla Latin American cocaine entering the European market; major consumer of synthetic drugs, producer of limited amounts of synthetic drugs and synthetic precursor chemicals; major consumer of Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering center
Import 14.308 billion kWh (2000)
Import $330.1 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Import - towary manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs
Import - partnerzy EU 51.7% (Niemcy 12.7%, Francja 8.6%, Holandia 6.7%, Benelux 5.1%), US 13.2% (2001)
Niepodleglosc England has existed as a unified entity since the 10th century; the union between England and Wales was enacted under the Statute of Rhuddlan w 1284; w the Act of Union of 1707, England and Scotland agreed to permanent union as Great Britain; the legislative union of Great Britain and Irlandia was implemented w 1801, z the adoption of the name the Wielka Brytania of Great Britain and Irlandia; the Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921 formalized a partition of Irlandia; six northern Irish counties remained part of the Wielka Brytania as Northern Irlandia and the current name of the country, the Wielka Brytania of Great Britain and Northern Irlandia, was adopted w 1927
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle -3.4% (2002 est.)
Przemysl machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, and other consumer goods
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 5.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflacja 2.1% (2002 est.)
Dostawcy internetu more than 400 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 1,080 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo House of Lords (highest court of appeal; several Lords of Appeal w Ordinary are appointed by the monarch dla life); Supreme Courts of England, Wales, and Northern Irlandia (comprising the Courts of Appeal, the High Courts of Justice, and the Crown Courts); Scotland's Court of Session and Court of the Justiciary
Sila robocza 29.7 million (2001)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 1%, industry 25%, services 74% (1999)
Granica total: 360 km

border countries: Irlandia 360 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 26.41%

permanent crops: 0.18%

other: 73.41% (1998 est.)
Jezyki English, Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales), Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 w Scotland)
System prawny common law tradition z early Roman and modern continental influences; no judicial review of Acts of Parliament; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations; British courts and legislation are increasingly subject to review by Unia Europejska courts
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament comprised of House of Lords (consists of approximately 500 life peers, 92 hereditary peers and 26 clergy) and House of Commons (659 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms unless the House is dissolved earlier)

elections: House of Lords - no elections (some proposals dla further reform include elections); House of Commons - last held 7 czerwiec 2001 (next to be held by NA maj 2006)

election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Labor 42.1%, Conservative and Unionist 32.7%, Liberal Democrats 18.8%, other 6.4%; seats by party - Labor 412, Conservative and Unionist 166, Liberal Democrat 52, other 29; note - seating as of 15 luty 2002: Labor 410, Conservative 164, Liberal Democrats 53, other 32

note: w 1998 elections were held dla a Northern Irlandia Parliament (because of unresolved disputes among existing parties, the transfer of power from London to Northern Irlandia came only at the end of 1999 and was twice rescinded before reinstatement w listopad 2001); w 1999 there were elections dla a new Scottish Parliament and a new Welsh Assembly
Zywotnosc total population: 77.99 years

male: 75.29 years

female: 80.84 years (2002 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling

total population: 99% (2000 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%
Lokalizacja Western Europe, islands including the northern one-sixth of the island of Irlandia between the North Ocean Atlantycki and the North Sea, northwest of Francja
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary continental shelf: as defined w continental shelf orders or w accordance z agreed upon boundaries

exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Flota handlowa total: 212 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,308,232 GRT/4,171,757 DWT

ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 32, chemical tanker 13, combination ore/oil 1, container 53, liquefied gas 3, passenger 13, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 48, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 26, short-sea passenger 10, specialized tanker 1

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Bermudy 1, Cypr 1, Dania 21, Niemcy 6, Grecja 3, Hong Kong 4, Wlochy 1, Monako 4, Holandia 1, Norwegia 9, Rosja 1, Republika Poludniowej Afryki 2, Szwecja 11, Tajwan 2, Stany Zjednoczone 5 (2002 est.)
Wojsko Army, Royal Navy (including Royal Marines), Royal Air Force
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $31.7 billion (2002)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.32% (2002)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 14,632,418 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 12,151,734 (2002 est.)
Swieto narodowe Birthday of Queen ELIZABETH II, celebrated on the second Saturday w czerwiec (1926)
Narodowosc noun: Briton(s), British (collective plural)

adjective: British
Naturalne zagrozenia winter windstorms; floods
Surowce naturalne coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji 1.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil (almost all insignificant) 933 km; petroleum products 2,993 km; natural gas 12,800 km
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Conservative and Unionist Party [Iain DUNCAN SMITH]; Democratic Unionist Party (Northern Irlandia) [Rev. Ian PAISLEY]; Labor Party [Anthony (Tony) BLAIR]; Liberal Democrats [Charles KENNEDY]; Party of Wales (Plaid Cymru) [Ieuan Wyn JONES]; Scottish National Party or SNP [John SWINNEY]; Sinn Fein (Northern Irlandia) [Gerry ADAMS]; Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Irlandia) [Mark DURKAN]; Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Irlandia) [David TRIMBLE]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Campaign dla Nuclear Disarmament; Confederation of British Industry; National Farmers' Union; Trades Union Congress
Ludnosc 59,778,002 (lipiec 2002 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 17%
Przyrost naturalny 0.21% (2002 est.)
Porty i stocznie Aberdeen, Belfast, Bristol, Cardiff, Dover, Falmouth, Felixstowe, Glasgow, Grangemouth, Hull, Leith, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Peterhead, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Scapa Flow, Southampton, Sullom Voe, Teesport, Tyne
Stacje radiowe AM 219, FM 431, shortwave 3 (1998)
Radia 84.5 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total: 16,878 km

standard gauge: 16,536 km 1.435-m gauge (4,928 km electrified; 12,591 km double- or multiple-tracked)

broad gauge: 342 km 1.600-m gauge (190 km double-tracked)

note: all 1.600-m gauge track is w common carrier service w Northern Irlandia (1996)
Religie Anglican and Roman Catholic 40 million, Muslim 1.5 million, Presbyterian 800,000, Methodist 760,000, Sikh 500,000, Hindu 500,000, Jewish 350,000
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: technologically advanced domestic and international system

domestic: equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optic systems

international: 40 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (7 Ocean Atlantycki and 3 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large international switching centers
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 34.878 million (1997)
Telefony komorkowe 43.5 million (yearend 1998)
Stacje telewizyjne 228 (plus 3,523 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains w east and southeast
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.73 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 5.2% (2002 est.)
Drogi wodne 3,200 km
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