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Wenezuela (2008)

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Wenezuela 2008 roku

 Wenezuela
Podzial administracyjny 23 states (estados, singular - estado), 1 capital district* (distrito capital), and 1 federal dependency** (dependencia federal); Amazonas, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Dependencias Federales**, Distrito Federal*, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Vargas, Yaracuy, Zulia


note: the federal dependency consists of 11 federally controlled island groups z a total of 72 individual islands
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 31.6% (male 4,169,979/female 4,046,170)


15-64 years: 63.4% (male 8,120,661/female 8,369,065)


65 years and over: 5.1% (male 586,863/female 730,790) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish
Lotniska 390 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 128


over 3,047 m: 5


2,438 to 3,047 m: 10


1,524 to 2,437 m: 34


914 to 1,523 m: 61


under 914 m: 18 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 262


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 15


914 to 1,523 m: 97


under 914 m: 149 (2007)
Terytorium total: 912,050 sq km


land: 882,050 sq km


water: 30,000 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than twice the size of California
Tlo historyczne Wenezuela was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Kolumbia w 1830 (the others being Ekwador and New Granada, which became Kolumbia). For most of the first half of the 20th century, Wenezuela was ruled by generally benevolent military strongmen, who promoted the oil industry and allowed dla some social reforms. Democratically elected governments have held sway since 1959. Hugo CHAVEZ, president since 1999, seeks to implement his "21st Century Socialism," which purports to alleviate social ills while at the same time attacking globalization and undermining regional stability. Current concerns include: a weakening of democratic institutions, political polarization, a politicized military, drug-related violence along the Kolumbian border, increasing internal drug consumption, overdependence on the petroleum industry z its price fluctuations, and irresponsible mining operations that are endangering the rain forest and indigenous peoples.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 21.22 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $63.27 billion


expenditures: $68.22 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Caracas


geographic coordinates: 10 30 N, 66 56 W


time difference: UTC-4.5 (half an hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical; hot, humid; more moderate w highlands
Linia brzegowa 2,800 km
Konstytucja 30 grudzien 1999
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Bolivarian Republic of Wenezuela


conventional short form: Wenezuela


local long form: Republica Bolivariana de Wenezuela


local short form: Wenezuela
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.08 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $45.44 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Patrick DUDDY


embassy: Calle F con Calle Suapure, Urbanizacion Colinas de Valle Arriba, Caracas 1080


mailing address: P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A; APO AA 34037


telephone: [58] (212) 975-9234, 975-6411


FAX: [58] (212) 975-8991
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Bernardo ALVAREZ Herrera


chancery: 1099 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007


telephone: [1] (202) 342-2214


FAX: [1] (202) 342-6820


consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Portoryko)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje claims all of the area west of the Essequibo River w Gujana, preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; Gujana has expressed its intention to join Barbados w asserting claims before the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that Trynidad i Tobago's maritime boundary z Wenezuela extends into their waters; dispute z Kolumbia over maritime boundary and Wenezuelan-administered Los Monjes islands near the Gulf of Wenezuela; Kolumbian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Wenezuela's shared border region; w 2006, an estimated 139,000 Kolumbians sought protection w 150 communities along the border w Wenezuela; US, Francja, and the Holandia recognize Wenezuela's granting full effect to Aves Island, thereby claiming a Wenezuelan EEZ/continental shelf extending over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea; Dominika, Saint Kitts i Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent i Grenadyny protest Wenezuela's full effect claim
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $48.66 million (2005)
Ekonomia Wenezuela remains highly dependent on oil revenues, which account dla roughly 90% of export earnings, more than 50% of the federal budget revenues, and around 30% of Produkt krajowy brutto. A nationwide strike between grudzien 2002 and luty 2003 had far-reaching economic consequences - real Produkt krajowy brutto declined by around 9% w 2002 and 8% w 2003 - but economic output since then has recovered strongly. Fueled by high oil prices, record government spending helped to boost Produkt krajowy brutto w 2006 by about 9% and w 2007 by about 8%. This spending, combined z recent minimum wage hikes and improved access to domestic credit, has created a consumption boom but has come at the cost of higher inflation-roughly 20 percent w 2007. Import also have jumped significantly. Embolden by his grudzien 2006 reelection, President Hugo CHAVEZ w 2007 nationalized firms w the petroleum, communications, and electricity sectors, which reduced foreign influence w the economy. Although voters w grudzien 2007 rejected CHAVEZ's proposed constitutional changes, CHAVEZ still has significant control of the economy and has indicated he intends to continue to consolidate and centralize authority over the economy by implementing "21st Century Socialism."
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 73.36 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 99.2 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m


highest point: Pico Bolivar (La Columna) 5,007 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy sewage pollution of Lago de Valencia; oil and urban pollution of Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil degradation; urban and industrial pollution, especially along the Caribbean coast; threat to the rainforest ecosystem from irresponsible mining operations
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands


signed but not ratified:: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, African, indigenous people
Kurs waluty bolivares per US dollar - 2,147 (2007), 2,147 (2006), 2,089.8 (2005), 1,891.3 (2004), 1,607 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 luty 1999); Executive Vice President Ramon Alonzo CARRIZALEZ Rengifo (since 4 styczen 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 luty 1999); Executive Vice President Ramon Alonzo CARRIZALEZ Rengifo (since 4 styczen 2008)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a six-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 3 grudzien 2006 (next to be held w grudzien 2012)


note: w 1999, a National Constituent Assembly drafted a new constitution that increased the presidential term to six years; an election was subsequently held on 30 lipiec 2000 under the terms of this constitution


election results: Hugo CHAVEZ Frias reelected president; percent of vote - Hugo CHAVEZ Frias 62.9%, Manuel ROSALES 36.9%
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $65.94 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 2.203 million bbl/day (2006 est.)
Eksport - towary petroleum, bauxite and aluminum, steel, chemicals, agricultural products, basic manufactures
Eksport - partnerzy US 46.2%, Antyle Holenderskie 13.5%, Chiny 3.2% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red z the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of eight white five-pointed stars centered w the blue band
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 3.5%


industry: 40%


services: 56.5% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 8.3% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 8 00 N, 66 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne on major sea and air routes linking North and South America; Angel Falls w the Guiana Highlands is the world's highest waterfall
Ladowiska helikopterow 2 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 0.7%


highest 10%: 35.2% (2003)
Narkotyki small-scale illicit producer of opium and coca dla the processing of opiates and coca derivatives; however, large quantities of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana transit the country from Kolumbia bound dla US and Europe; significant narcotics-related money-laundering activity, especially along the border z Kolumbia and on Margarita Island; active eradication program primarily targeting opium; increasing signs of drug-related activities by Kolumbian insurgents on border
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $44.38 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 0 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Import - towary raw materials, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, construction materials
Import - partnerzy US 30.6%, Kolumbia 10.2%, Brazylia 10.1%, Meksyk 5.9%, Chiny 4.9%, Panama 4.8% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 5 lipiec 1811 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5.5% (2007 est.)
Przemysl petroleum, construction materials, food processing, textiles; iron ore mining, steel, aluminum; motor vehicle assembly
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 22.52 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 26.14 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 18.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 20.7% (Rok ending listopad 2007)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji CAN, Caricom (observer), CDB, CSN, FAO, G-3, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 5,750 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribuna Suprema de Justicia (magistrates are elected by the National Assembly dla a single 12-year term)
Sila robocza 12.5 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 13%


industry: 23%


services: 64% (1997 est.)
Granica total: 4,993 km


border countries: Brazylia 2,200 km, Kolumbia 2,050 km, Gujana 743 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 2.85%


permanent crops: 0.88%


other: 96.27% (2005)
Jezyki Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects
System prawny open, adversarial court system
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (167 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; three seats reserved dla the indigenous peoples of Wenezuela)


elections: last held 4 grudzien 2005 (next to be held w 2010)


election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - pro-government 167 (MVR 114, PODEMOS 15, PPT 11, indigenous 2, other 25), opposition 0; total seats by party as of 1 styczen 2008 - pro-government 152 (PSUV 114, PPT 11, indigenous 2, other 25), PODEMOS 15
Zywotnosc total population: 73.28 years


male: 70.24 years


female: 76.48 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 93%


male: 93.3%


female: 92.7% (2001 census)
Lokalizacja Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Ocean Atlantycki, between Kolumbia and Gujana
Lokalizacja na mapie South America
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 15 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 59 ships (1000 GRT or over) 808,721 GRT/1,285,783 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 14, chemical tanker 3, container 1, liquefied gas 6, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 17, refrigerated cargo 1


foreign-owned: 12 (Dania 3, Grecja 3, Meksyk 3, Panama 1, Rosja 1, Hiszpania 1)


registered w other countries: 11 (Bahamas 1, Panama 10) (2007)
Wojsko National Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Nacionales or FAN): Ground Forces or Army (Fuerzas Terrestres or Ejercito), Naval Forces (Fuerzas Navales or Armada; includes Marines, Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerzas Aereas or Aviacion), Armed Forces of Cooperation or National Guard (Fuerzas Armadas de Cooperacion or Guardia Nacional)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.2% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 5 lipiec (1811)
Narodowosc noun: Wenezuelan(s)


adjective: Wenezuelan
Naturalne zagrozenia subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts
Surowce naturalne petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds
Wspolczynnik migracji -1.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi extra heavy crude oil 992 km; gas 5,400 km; oil 7,607 km; refined products 1,650 km; unknown (oil/water) 141 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy A New Time or UNT [Manuel ROSALES]; Christian Democrats or COPEI [Cesar PEREZ Vivas]; Communist Party of Wenezuela or PCV [Jeronimo CARRERA]; Democratic Action or AD [Henry RAMOS Allup]; Fatherland dla All or PPT [Jose ALBORNOZ]; Justice First [Julio BORGES]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Hector MUJICA]; United Socialist Party of Wenezuela or PSUV [Hugo CHAVEZ]; Wenezuela Project or PV [Henrique SALAS Romer]; We Can or PODEMOS [Ismael GARCIA]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow FEDECAMARAS, a conservative business group; VECINOS groups; Wenezuelan Confederation of Workers or CTV (labor organization dominated by the Democratic Action)
Ludnosc 26,023,528 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 37.9% (end 2005 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.486% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 201, FM NA (20 w Caracas), shortwave 11 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 682 km


standard gauge: 682 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
Religie nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%, other 2%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.031 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.803 male(s)/female


total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: modern and expanding


domestic: domestic satellite system z 3 earth stations; recent substantial improvement w telephone service w rural areas; substantial increase w digitalization of exchanges and trunk lines; installation of a national interurban fiber-optic network capable of digital multimedia services; fixed-line teledensity, at 16 per 100 persons, is low by regional standards; mobile-cellular subscribership jumped 50 percent w 2006


international: country code - 58; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to the Caribbean, Central and South America, and US; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 1 PanAmSat; participating z Kolumbia, Ekwador, Peru, and Boliwia w the construction of an international fiber-optic network
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 4.217 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 18.79 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 66 (plus 45 repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands w northwest; central plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands w southeast
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.55 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9.1% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 7,100 km


note: Orinoco River (400 km) and Lake de Maracaibo navigable by oceangoing vessels (2005)
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