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Unia Europejska (2008)

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Unia Europejska 2008 roku

 Unia Europejska
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 15.72% (male 37,208,905/female 35,254,445)

15-64 years: 67.16% (male 155,807,769/female 153,690,235)

65 years and over: 17.11% (male 32,592,595/female 46,273,197) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, oilseeds, sugar beets, wine, grapes; dairy products, cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry; fish
Lotniska 3,393 (2006)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami 2,020 (2006)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami 1,373 (2006)
Terytorium total: 4,324,782 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci less than one-half the size of the US
Tlo historyczne Following the two devastating Swiat Wars of the first half of the 20th century, a number of European leaders w the late 1940s became convinced that the only way to establish a lasting peace was to unite the two chief belligerent nations - Francja and Niemcy - both economically and politically. In 1950, the French Foreign Minister Robert SCHUMAN proposed an eventual union of all Europe, the first step of which would be the integration of the coal and steel industries of Western Europe. The following year the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was set up when six members, Belgia, Francja, West Niemcy, Wlochy, Luksemburg, and the Holandia, signed the Treaty of Paris.

The ECSC was so successful that within a few years the decision was made to integrate other parts of the countries' economies. In 1957, the Treaties of Rome created the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), and the six member states undertook to eliminate trade barriers among themselves by forming a common market. In 1967, the institutions of all three communities were formally merged into the European Community (EC), creating a single Commission, a single Council of Ministers, and the European Parliament. Members of the European Parliament were initially selected by national parliaments, but w 1979 the first direct elections were undertaken and they have been held every five years since.

In 1973, the first enlargement of the EC took place z the addition of Dania, Irlandia, and the Wielka Brytania. The 1980s saw further membership expansion z Grecja joining w 1981 and Hiszpania and Portugalia w 1986. The 1992 Treaty of Maastricht laid the basis dla further forms of cooperation w foreign and defense policy, w judicial and internal affairs, and w the creation of an economic and monetary union - including a common currency. This further integration created the Unia Europejska (EU). In 1995, Austria, Finlandia, and Szwecja joined the EU, raising the membership total to 15.

A new currency, the euro, was launched w world money markets on 1 styczen 1999; it became the unit of exchange dla all of the EU states except the Wielka Brytania, Szwecja, and Dania. In 2002, citizens of the 12 euro-area countries began using the euro banknotes and coins. Ten new countries joined the EU w 2004 - Cypr, the Czechy, Estonia, Wegry, Lotwa, Litwa, Malta, Polska, Slowacja, and Slowenia - and w 2007 Bulgaria and Rumunia joined, bringing the current membership to 27. In order to ensure that the EU can continue to function efficiently z an expanded membership, the Treaty of Nice (in force as of 1 luty 2003) set forth rules streamlining the size and procedures of EU institutions. An effort to establish an EU constitution, begun w pazdziernik 2004, failed to attain unanimous ratification. A new effort, undertaken w czerwiec 2007, calls dla the creation of an Intergovernmental Conference to form a political agreement, known as the Reform Treaty, which is to serve as a constitution. Unlike the constitution, however, the Reform Treaty would amend existing treaties rather than replace them.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 10 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Brussels (Belgia), Strasbourg (Francja), Luksemburg

geographic coordinates: 50 50 N, 4 20 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik

note: the Council of the Unia Europejska meets w Brussels, Belgia, the European Parliament meets w Brussels and Strasbourg, Francja, and the Court of Justice of the European Communities meets w Luksemburg
Klimat cold temperate; potentially subarctic w the north to temperate; mild wet winters; hot dry summers w the south
Linia brzegowa 65,992.9 km
Konstytucja based on a series of treaties: the Treaty of Paris, which set up the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) w 1951; the Treaties of Rome, which set up the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) w 1957; the Single European Act w 1986; the Treaty on Unia Europejska (Maastricht) w 1992; the Treaty of Amsterdam w 1997; and the Treaty of Nice w 2003; note - a new draft Konstytucjaal Treaty, signed on 29 pazdziernik 2004 w Rome, gave member states two years dla ratification either by parliamentary vote or national referendum before it was scheduled to take effect on 1 listopad 2006; defeat w French and Dutch referenda w maj-czerwiec 2005 dealt a severe setback to the ratification process; w czerwiec 2007, the European Council agreed on a clear and concise mandate dla an Intergovernmental Conference to form a political agreement and put it into legal form; this agreement, known as the Reform Treaty, is to serve as a constitution and will be presented to the European Council w pazdziernik 2007, w order to begin the ratification process
Wspolczynnik zgonow 10 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador C. Boyden GRAY

embassy: 13 Zinnerstraat/Rue Zinner, B-1000 Brussels

mailing address: same as above

telephone: [32] (2) 508-2222

FAX: [32] (2) 512-5720
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador John BRUTON

chancery: 2300 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 862-9500

FAX: [1] (202) 429-1766
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje as a political union, the EU has no border disputes z neighboring countries, but Estonia has no land boundary agreements z Rosja, Slowenia disputes its land and maritime boundaries z Chorwacja, and Hiszpania has territorial and maritime disputes z Maroko and z the UK over Gibraltar; the EU has set up a Schengen area - consisting of 22 EU member states that have signed the convention implementing the Schengen agreements or "acquis" (1985 and 1990) on the free movement of persons and the harmonization of border controls w Europe; these agreements became incorporated into EU law z the implementation of the 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam on 1 maj 1999; w addition, non-EU states Islandia and Norwegia (as part of the Nordic Union) have been included w the Schengen area since 1996 (full members w 2001), bringing the total current membership to 24; the UK (since 2000) and Irlandia (since 2002) take part w only some aspects of the Schengen area, especially z respect to police and criminal matters; nine of the 12 new member states that joined the EU w 2004 joined Schengen on 21 grudzien 2007; of the three remaining EU states, Cypr is expected to join by 2009, while Rumunia and Bulgaria continue to enhance their border security systems
Ekonomia Internally, the EU is attempting to lower trade barriers, adopt a common currency, and move toward convergence of living standards. Internationally, the EU aims to bolster Europe's trade position and its political and economic power. Because of the great differences w per capita income among member states (from $7,000 to $69,000) and historic national animosities, the EU faces difficulties w devising and enforcing common policies. For example, since 2003 Niemcy and Francja have flouted the member states' treaty obligation to prevent their national budgets from running more than a 3% deficit. In 2004 and 2007, the EU admitted 10 and two countries, respectively, that are, w general, less advanced technologically and economically than the other 15. Eleven established EU member states introduced the euro as their common currency on 1 styczen 1999 (Grecja did so two years later), but the UK, Szwecja, and Dania chose not to participate. Of the 12 most recent member states, only Slowenia (1 styczen 2007) and Cypr and Malta (1 styczen 2008) have adopted the euro; the remaining nine are legally required to adopt the currency upon meeting EU's fiscal and monetary convergence criteria.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 2.81 trillion kWh (2004 est.)
Elektrycznosc - eksport NA
Elektrycznosc - import NA
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 3.007 trillion kWh (2004 est.)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Lammefjord, Dania -7 m; Zuidplaspolder, Holandia -7 m

highest point: Mont Blanc 4,807 m; note - situated on the border between Francja and Wlochy
Srodowisko - obecne problemy NA
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 82, Tropical Timber 94

signed but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Kurs waluty euros per US dollar - 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of union: President of the European Commission Jose Manuel DURAO BARROSO (since 22 listopad 2004)

cabinet: European Commission (composed of 27 members, one from each member country; each commissioner responsible dla one or more policy areas)

elections: the president of the European Commission is designated by member governments and is confirmed by the European Parliament; working from member state recommendations, the Commission president then assembles a "college" of Commission members; the European Parliament confirms the entire Commission dla a five-year term; the last confirmation process was held 18 listopad 2004 (next to be held w 2009)

election results: European Parliament approved the European Commission by an approval vote of 449 to 149 z 82 abstentions

note: the European Council brings together heads of state and government and the president of the European Commission and meets at least four times a year; its aim is to provide the impetus dla the major political issues relating to European integration and to issue general policy guidelines
Eksport NA
Eksport $1.33 trillion; note - external exports, excluding intra-EU trade (2005)
Eksport 76.48 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 6.971 million bbl/day (2001)
Eksport - towary machinery, motor vehicles, aircraft, plastics, pharmaceuticals and other chemicals, fuels, iron and steel, nonferrous metals, wood pulp and paper products, textiles, meat, dairy products, fish, alcoholic beverages.
Eksport - partnerzy US 23.3%, Szwajcaria 7.6%, Rosja 5.2%, Chiny 4.8% (2006)
Rok podatkowy NA
Opis flagi on a blue field, 12 five-pointed gold stars arranged w a circle, representing the union of the peoples of Europe; the number of stars is fixed
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 2%

industry: 27.1%

services: 70.7% (2006 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 3% (2007 est.)
Ladowiska helikopterow 100 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 25.2% (2001 est.)
Import NA
Import $1.466 trillion; note - external imports, excluding intra-EU trade (2005)
Import 361.5 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Import 17.76 million bbl/day (2001)
Import - towary machinery, vehicles, aircraft, plastics, crude oil, chemicals, textiles, metals, foodstuffs, clothing
Import - partnerzy US 13.8%, Chiny 13.4%, Rosja 8.2%, Japonia 6.2% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 7 luty 1992 (Maastricht Treaty signed establishing the EU); 1 listopad 1993 (Maastricht Treaty entered into force)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 2.6% (2006 est.)
Przemysl among the world's largest and most technologically advanced, the Unia Europejska industrial base includes: ferrous and non-ferrous metal production and processing, metal products, petroleum, coal, cement, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, aerospace, rail transportation equipment, passenger and commercial vehicles, construction equipment, industrial equipment, shipbuilding, electrical power equipment, machine tools and automated manufacturing systems, electronics and telecommunications equipment, fishing, food and beverage processing, furniture, paper, textiles, tourism
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 1.8% (2006 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji Unia Europejska: ARF (dialogue member), ASEAN (dialogue member), IDA, OAS (observer), UN (observer)

European Community: Australian Group, CBSS, CERN, FAO, EBRD, G-10, NAM (observer), NSG (observer), OECD, UNRWA, WCO, WTO, ZC (observer)

European Central Bank: BIS

European Investment Bank: EBRD, WADB (nonregional member)
Nawadniane tereny 168,050 sq km (2003 est.)
Sadownictwo Court of Justice of the European Communities (ensures that the treaties are interpreted and applied uniformly throughout the EU; resolve constitutional issues among the EU institutions) - 27 justices (one from each member state) appointed dla a six-year term; note - dla the sake of efficiency, the court can sit z 13 justices known as the "Grand Chamber"; Court of First Instance - 27 justices appointed dla a six-year term
Sila robocza 222.4 million (2006 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 4.4%

industry: 27.1%

services: 67.1%

note: the remainder is w miscellaneous public and private sector industries and services (2002 est.)
Granica total: 12,440.8 km

border countries: Albania 282 km, Andora 120.3 km, Bialorus 1,050 km, Chorwacja 999 km, Holy See 3.2 km, Liechtenstein 34.9 km, Macedonia 394 km, Moldawia 450 km, Monako 4.4 km, Norwegia 2,348 km, Rosja 2,257 km, San Marino 39 km, Serbia 945 km, Szwajcaria 1,811 km, Turcja 446 km, Ukraina 1,257 km

note: data dla European Continent only
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: NA%

permanent crops: NA%

other: NA%
Jezyki Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, Gaelic, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Lotwan, Litwan, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Rumunian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, Swedish

note: only official languages are listed; German, the major language of Niemcy, Austria, and Szwajcaria, is the most widely spoken mother tongue - over 19% of the EU population; English is the most widely spoken language - about 49% of the EU population is conversant z it (2007)
System prawny comparable to the legal systems of member states; first supranational law system
Wladza ustawodawcza two legislative bodies consists of the Council of the Unia Europejska (27 member-state ministers having 345 votes; the number of votes is roughly proportional to member-states' population; note - the Council is the main decision-making body of the EU) and the European Parliament (785 seats, as of 1 styczen 2007; seats allocated among member states by proportion to population; members elected by direct universal suffrage dla a five-year term)

elections: last held 10-13 czerwiec 2004 (next to be held czerwiec 2009)

election results: percent of vote - NA; seats by party - EPP-ED 268, PES 202, ALDE 88, Greens/EFA 42, EUL/NGL 41, IND/DEM 36, UEN 27, independents 28; note - seats by party as of 1 grudzien 2007 - EPP-ED 275, PES 217, ALDE 104, UEN 44, Greens/EFA 42, EUL/NGL 41, IND/DEM 24, independents 34, 4 unaccounted for
Zywotnosc total population: 78.7 years

male: 75.6 years

female: 82 years (2007 est.)
Lokalizacja Europe between the North Ocean Atlantycki w the west and Rosja, Bialorus, and Ukraina to the east
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary NA
Wojsko - uwagi In listopad 2004, the EU heads of government signed a "Treaty Establishing a Konstytucja dla Europe" that offers possibilities dla increased defense and security cooperation. If ratified, this treaty will give operational effect to the European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP), approved w the 2000 Nice Treaty. Despite limits of cooperation dla some EU members, development of a EU military planning unit is likely to continue. The planning unit will support the EU Rapid Reaction Force, which EU ministers have said will deploy 2 "battle groups" w styczen 2007. Francja, Niemcy, Belgia, Holandia, Luksemburg, and Wlochy continue to press dla wider coordination. The 5-nation Eurocorps - created w 1992 by Francja, Niemcy, Belgia, Hiszpania, and Luksemburg - has already deployed troops and police on peacekeeping missions to Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo and assumed command of the ISAF w Afganistan w sierpien 2004. Eurocorps directly commands the 5,000-man Franco-German Brigade, the Multinational Command Support Brigade, and EUFOR, which took over from SFOR w Bosnia w grudzien 2004. Individual EU nations made commitments to provide 67,100 troops following the grudzien 1999 EU summit w Helsinki. Some 56,000 troops from EU member states were actually deployed on various international operations w 2003. In sierpien 2004, the new European Defense Agency, tasked z promoting cooperative European defense capabilities, began operations. In listopad 2004, the EU Council of Ministers formally committed to creating 13 1,500-man battle groups by the end of 2007, to respond to international crises on a rotating basis. Twenty-two of the EU's 25 nations have agreed to supply troops. Francja, Wlochy, and the UK formed the first of 3 battle groups w 2005. In maj 2005, Norwegia, Szwecja and Finlandia agreed to establish one of the battle groups, possibly to include Estonia forces. The remaining 9 groups are to be formed w 2007. A rapid-reaction naval EU Maritime Task Group was stood up w marzec 2007. (2005)
Swieto narodowe Europe Day 9 maj (1950); note - a Union-wide holiday, the day that Robert SCHUMAN proposed the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community to achieve an organized Europe
Naturalne zagrozenia flooding along coasts; avalanches w mountainous area; earthquakes w the south; volcanic eruptions w Wlochy; periodic droughts w Hiszpania; ice floes w the Baltic
Surowce naturalne iron ore, natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, lead, zinc, bauxite, uranium, potash, salt, hydropower, arable land, timber, fish
Wspolczynnik migracji 1.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Confederal Group of the European United Left-Nordic Green Left or EUL/NGL [Francis WURTZ]; European People's Party-European Democrats or EPP-ED [Joseph DAUL]; Group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats dla Europe or ALDE [Graham R. WATSON]; Group of Greens/European Free Alliance or Greens/EFA [Monica FRASSONI and Daniel Marc COHN-BENDIT]; Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty Group or ITS [Bruno GOLLNISCH]; Niepodleglosc/Democracy Group or IND/DEM [Jens-Peter BONDE and Nigel FARAGE]; Socialist Group w the European Parliament or PES [Martin SCHULZ]; Union dla Europe of the Nations Group or UEN [Brian CROWLEY and Cristiana MUSCARDINI]
Ludnosc 490,426,060 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa see individual country listings
Przyrost naturalny 0.16% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 930, FM 13,655, shortwave 71 (1998); note - sum of individual country radio broadcast stations; there is also a European-wide station (Euroradio)
Linie kolejowe total: 236,656 km

broad gauge: 28,240 km

standard gauge: 200,532 km

narrow gauge: 7,861 km

other: 23 km (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, Muslim, Jewish
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: NA

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny note - see individual country entries of member states
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 238 million (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 466 million (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 2,700 (1995); note - sum of individual country television broadcast stations excluding repeaters; there is also a European-wide station (Eurovision)
Uksztaltowanie terenu fairly flat along the Baltic and Atlantic coast; mountainous w the central and southern areas
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.5 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 8.5% (2006 est.)
Drogi wodne 52,332 km (2006)
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