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Uganda (2001)

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Uganda 2001 year

Administrative divisions 45 districts; Adjumani, Apac, Arua, Bugiri, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Gulu, Hoima, Iganga, Jinja, Kabale, Kabarole, Kalangala, Kampala, Kamuli, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kibale, Kiboga, Kisoro, Kitgum, Kotido, Kumi, Lira, Luwero, Masaka, Masindi, Mbale, Mbarara, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakasongola, Nebbi, Ntungamo, Pallisa, Rakai, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Soroti, Tororo
Age structure 0-14 years:
51.08% (male 6,150,038; female 6,100,880)

15-64 years:
46.78% (male 5,613,499; female 5,607,526)

65 years and over:
2.14% (male 244,216; female 269,553) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry
Airports 28 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
8 (2000 est.)
Area total:
236,040 sq km

199,710 sq km

36,330 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Oregon
Background Uganda achieved independence from the UK in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed another 100,000 lives. During the 1990s the government promulgated non-party presidential and legislative elections.
Birth rate 47.52 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$959 million

$1.04 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY98/99 est.)
Capital Kampala
Climate tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 8 October 1995; adopted by the interim, 284-member Constituent Assembly, charged with debating the draft constitution that had been proposed in May 1993; the Constituent Assembly was dissolved upon the promulgation of the constitution in October 1995
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Uganda

conventional short form:
Currency Ugandan shilling (UGX)
Death rate 17.97 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $3.6 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Martin G. BRENNAN

Parliament Avenue, Kampala

mailing address:
P. O. Box 7007, Kampala

[256] (41) 259792, 259793, 259795

[256] (41) 259794
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Edith Grace SSEMPALA

5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011

[1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416

[1] (202) 726-1727
Disputes - international the Ugandan military is deployed to the Democratic Republic of Congo in support of rebel forces in that country's civil war; a resurvey of the latitudinal boundary with Tanzania in 2000 revealed a 300-meter discrepancy that both sides are currently adjudicating
Economic aid - recipient $1.4 billion (2000)
Economy - overview Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee is the major export crop and accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. In 1990-2000, the economy turned in a solid performance based on continued investment in the rehabilitation of infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, reduced inflation, gradually improved domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. Ongoing Ugandan involvement in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, corruption within the government, and slippage in the government's determination to press reforms raise doubts about the continuation of strong growth. In 2000, Uganda qualified for enhanced HIPC debt relief worth $1.3 billion and Paris Club debt relief worth $145 million. These amounts combined with the original Highly Indebted Poor Countries HIPC debt relief add up to about $2 billion. Growth for 2001 should be somewhat lower than in 2000, because of a decline in the price of coffee, Uganda's principal export.
Electricity - consumption 1.06 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 174 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 1 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 1.326 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Lake Albert 621 m

highest point:
Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m
Environment - current issues draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; poaching is widespread
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Environmental Modification
Ethnic groups Baganda 17%, Karamojong 12%, Basogo 8%, Iteso 8%, Langi 6%, Rwanda 6%, Bagisu 5%, Acholi 4%, Lugbara 4%, Bunyoro 3%, Batoro 3%, non-African (European, Asian, Arab) 1%, other 23%
Exchange rates Ugandan shillings per US dollar - 1,700 (February 2001), 1,830.4 (January 2001), 1,644.5 (2000), 1,454.8 (1999), 1,240.2 (1998), 1,083.0 (1997), 1,046.1 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 29 January 1986); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government:
President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 29 January 1986); Prime Minister Apollo NSIBAMBI (since 5 April 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; the prime minister assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet

Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators

president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 12 March 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); note - first popular election for president since independence in 1962 was held in 1996; prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 69.3%, Kizza BESIGYE 27.8%
Exports 174 million kWh (1999)
Exports $500.1 million (f.o.b., 1999)
Exports - commodities coffee, fish and fish products, tea; electrical products, iron and steel
Exports - partners Spain, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Hungary, Kenya (1999)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side
GDP purchasing power parity - $26.2 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


40% (1998 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 1 00 N, 32 00 E
Geography - note landlocked
Heliports 1 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
27,000 km

1,800 km

25,200 km (of which about 4200 km are all-weather roads) (1990)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
33.4% (1992)
Imports 1 million kWh (1999)
Imports $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1999)
Imports - commodities vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
Imports - partners Kenya 27.5%, US 21.2%, France 19.3, UK 5%, India 4% (1999)
Independence 9 October 1962 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 7% (1999)
Industries sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement
Infant mortality rate 91.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6.5% (2000)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Irrigated land 90 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the president and approved by the legislature); High Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Labor force 8.361 million (1993 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 82%, industry 5%, services 13% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total:
2,698 km

border countries:
Democratic Republic of the Congo 765 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

29% (1993 est.)
Languages English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Legal system in 1995, the government restored the legal system to one based on English common law and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly (276 members - 214 directly elected by popular vote, 62 nominated by legally established special interest groups and approved by the president - women 39, army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 3; members serve five-year terms)

last held 27 June 1996 (next to be held May or June 2001);

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; note - election campaigning by party was not permitted
Life expectancy at birth total population:
43.37 years

42.59 years

44.17 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


50.2% (1995 est.)
Location Eastern Africa, west of Kenya
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,091 GRT/8,229 DWT

ships by type:
roll on/roll off

these ships are in cargo and passenger service on Uganda's inland waterways (2000 est.)
Military branches Army, Air Wing, Marine Unit
Military expenditures - dollar figure $95 million (FY98/99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.9% (FY98/99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
5,118,755 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
2,778,457 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards NA
Natural resources copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land
Net migration rate -0.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

according to the UNHCR, by the end of 1999, Uganda was host to 218,000 refugees from a number of neighboring countries, including: Sudan 200,600, Rwanda 8,000, and Democratic Republic of the Congo 8,000
Political parties and leaders only one political organization, the National Resistance Movement or NRM [President MUSEVENI, chairman] is allowed to operate unfettered; note - the president maintains that the NRM is not a political party, but a movement which claims the loyalty of all Ugandans

the new constitution requires the suspension of political parties while the Movement system is in governanace; of the political parties that exist but are prohibited from sponsoring candidates, the most important are the Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Milton OBOTE]; Democratic Party or DP [Paul SSEMOGERERE]; Conservative Party or CP [Joshua S. MAYANJA-NKANGI]; Justice Forum [Muhammad Kibirige MAYANJA]; and National Democrats Forum [Chapaa KARUHANGA]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 23,985,712

estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 55% (1993 est.)
Population growth rate 2.93% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell
Radio broadcast stations AM 19, FM 4, shortwave 5 (1998)
Radios 2.6 million (1997)
Railways total:
1,241 km

narrow gauge:
1,241 km 1.000-m gauge

a program to rehabilitate the railroad is underway (1995)
Religions Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, indigenous beliefs 18%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.91 male(s)/female

total population:
1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
seriously inadequate; two cellular systems have been introduced, but a sharp increase in the number of main lines is essential; e-mail and Internet services are available

intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile cellular systems for short range traffic

satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenya and Tanzania
Telephones - main lines in use 50,074; however, 80,868 main lines were installed (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 9,000 (1998)
Television broadcast stations 8 (plus one low-power repeater) (1999)
Terrain mostly plateau with rim of mountains
Total fertility rate 6.88 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George, Lake Edward, Victoria Nile, Albert Nile
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