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Trinidad and Tobago (2003)

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 Trinidad and Tobago
Administrative divisions 8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward**; Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro, Nariva, Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick, San Fernando*, Tobago**, Victoria
Age structure 0-14 years: 22.2% (male 125,470; female 119,270)

15-64 years: 70% (male 402,137; female 370,600)

65 years and over: 7.9% (male 38,928; female 47,804) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products cocoa, sugarcane, rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry
Airports 6 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Area total: 5,128 sq km

land: 5,128 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Delaware
Background The islands came under British control in the 19th century; independence was granted in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean, thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. Tourism, mostly in Tobago, is targeted for expansion and is growing.
Birth rate 12.74 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.54 billion

expenditures: $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $117.3 million (1998)
Capital Port-of-Spain
Climate tropical; rainy season (June to December)
Coastline 362 km
Constitution 1 August 1976
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago
Currency Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TTD)
Death rate 8.71 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $2.8 billion (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Roy L. AUSTIN

embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain

mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain

telephone: [1] (868) 622-6372 through 6376, 622-6176

FAX: [1] (868) 628-5462
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Marina Annette VALERE (as of February 2003)

chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490

FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130

consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $24 million (1999 est.)
Economy - overview Trinidad and Tobago has earned a reputation as an excellent investment site for international businesses. A leading performer the past four years has been the booming natural gas sector. Tourism is a growing sector, although not proportionately as important as in many other Caribbean islands. The economy benefits from low inflation and a trade surplus. The year 2002 was marked by solid growth in the oil sector, offset in part by domestic political uncertainty.
Electricity - consumption 4.943 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 5.315 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 99.8%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0.2% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m
Environment - current issues water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups black 39.5%, East Indian (a local term - primarily immigrants from northern India) 40.3%, mixed 18.4%, white 0.6%, Chinese and other 1.2%
Exchange rates Trinidad and Tobago dollars per US dollar - 6.24 (2002), 6.23 (2001), 6.3 (2000), 6.3 (1999), 6.3 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President George Maxwell RICHARDS (since 17 March 2003)

head of government: Prime Minister Patrick MANNING (since 24 December 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament

elections: president elected by an electoral college, which consists of the members of the Senate and House of Representatives, for a five-year term; election last held 14 February 2003 (next to be held NA 2008); the president usually appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives

election results: George Maxwell RICHARDS elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 43%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $4.2 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports 3.65 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, steel products, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus, flowers
Exports - partners US 56.9%, Jamaica 7.3%, France 4.4% (2002)
Fiscal year 1 October - 30 September
Flag description red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side to the lower fly side
GDP purchasing power parity - $11.07 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1.6%

industry: 43.2%

services: 55.2% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $10,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.2% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 11 00 N, 61 00 W
Geography - note Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt
Highways total: 8,320 km

paved: 4,252 km

unpaved: 4,068 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; producer of cannabis
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $3.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, live animals
Imports - partners US 42%, Cote d'Ivoire 5.5%, UK 5%, Japan 4.5%, Brazil 4.3% (2002)
Independence 31 August 1962 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 2.6% (2002 est.)
Industries petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles
Infant mortality rate total: 24.97 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 26.93 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 22.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4.3% (2002 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 17 (2000)
Irrigated land 30 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Judicature (comprised of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeals; the chief justice is appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission); High Court of Justice; Court of Appeals the highest court of appeal is the Privy Council in London
Labor force 564,000 (2000)
Labor force - by occupation construction and utilities 12.4%, manufacturing, mining, and quarrying 14%, agriculture 9.5%, services 64.1% (1997 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 14.62%

permanent crops: 9.16%

other: 76.22% (1998 est.)
Languages English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish, Chinese
Legal system based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (31 seats; members appointed by the president for a maximum term of five years) and the House of Representatives (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Representatives - last held 7 October 2002 (next to be held by October 2007)

election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote - PNM 55.5%, UNC 44.5%; seats by party - PNM 20, UNC 16

note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly, with 15 members serving four-year terms
Life expectancy at birth total population: 69.59 years

male: 67.07 years

female: 72.23 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.6%

male: 99.1%

female: 98% (2003 est.)
Location Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the outer edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 7,032 GRT/5,106 DWT

ships by type: cargo 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, short-sea passenger 1

note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: US 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (including Ground Force, Coast Guard, and Air Wing), Trinidad and Tobago Police Service
Military expenditures - dollar figure $90 million (1999)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (1999)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 327,823 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 233,488 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 31 August (1962)
Nationality noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)

adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian
Natural hazards outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, asphalt
Net migration rate -10.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines condensate 253 km; gas 1,117 km; oil 478 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders National Alliance for Reconstruction or NAR [Hochoy CHARLES]; People's Empowerment Party or PEP [leader NA]; People's National Movement or PNM [Patrick MANNING]; Team Unity or TUN [Ramesh MAHARAJ]; United National Congress or UNC [Basdeo PANDAY]
Political pressure groups and leaders Jamaat-al Musilmeen [Yasin BAKR]
Population 1,104,209 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 21% (1992 est.)
Population growth rate -0.68% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Pointe-a-Pierre, Point Fortin, Point Lisas, Port-of-Spain, Scarborough, Tembladora
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)
Railways minimal agricultural railroad system near San Fernando; common carrier railway service was discontinued in 1968 (2001)
Religions Roman Catholic 29.4%, Hindu 23.8%, Anglican 10.9%, Muslim 5.8%, Presbyterian 3.4%, other 26.7%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: excellent international service; good local service

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana
Telephones - main lines in use 252,000 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 17,411 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 4 (1997)
Terrain mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Total fertility rate 1.78 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 10.8% (2002)
Waterways none
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