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Tajwan (2008)

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Tajwan 2008 roku

Podzial administracyjny includes main island of Tajwan plus smaller islands nearby and off coast of Chiny's Fujian Province; Tajwan is divided into 18 counties (hsien, singular and plural), 5 municipalities (shih, singular and plural), and 2 special municipalities (chuan-shih, singular and plural)

note: Tajwan uses a variety of romanization systems; while a modified Wade-Giles system still dominates, the city of Taipei has adopted a Pinyin romanization dla street and place names within its boundaries; other local authorities use different romanization systems; names dla administrative divisions that follow are taken from the Tajwan Yearbook 2007 published by the Government Information Office w Taipei.

counties: Changhua, Chiayi [county], Hsinchu, Hualien, Kaohsiung [county], Kinmen, Lienchiang, Miaoli, Nantou, Penghu, Pingtung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei [county], Taitung, Taoyuan, Yilan, and Yunlin

municipalities: Chiayi [city], Hsinchu, Keelung, Taichung, Tainan

special municipalities: Kaohsiung [city], Taipei [city]
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 17.8% (male 2,117,051/female 1,954,709)

15-64 years: 72% (male 8,306,351/female 8,141,268)

65 years and over: 10.2% (male 1,150,001/female 1,189,492) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, corn, vegetables, fruit, tea; pigs, poultry, beef, milk; fish
Lotniska 41 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 38

over 3,047 m: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Terytorium total: 35,980 sq km

land: 32,260 sq km

water: 3,720 sq km

note: includes the Pescadores, Matsu, and Quemoy islands
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Maryland and Delaware combined
Tlo historyczne In 1895, military defeat forced Chiny to cede Tajwan to Japonia. Tajwan reverted to Chinese control after Swiat War II. Following the Communist victory on the mainland w 1949, 2 million Nationalists fled to Tajwan and established a government using the 1946 constitution drawn up dla all of Chiny. Over the next five decades, the ruling authorities gradually democratized and incorporated the local population within the governing structure. In 2000, Tajwan underwent its first peaceful transfer of power from the Nationalist to the Democratic Progressive Party. Throughout this period, the island prospered and became one of East Asia's economic "Tigers." The dominant political issues continue to be the relationship between Tajwan and Chiny - specifically the question of eventual unification - as well as domestic political and economic reform.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 8.97 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $49 billion

expenditures: $5.19 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Taipei

geographic coordinates: 25 03 N, 121 30 E

time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (czerwiec to sierpien); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all rok
Linia brzegowa 1,566.3 km
Konstytucja 25 grudzien 1947; amended w 1992, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2005

note: constitution adopted on 25 grudzien 1946; went into effect on 25 grudzien 1947
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Tajwan

local long form: none

local short form: T'ai-wan

former: Formosa
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.54 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $85.8 billion (31 grudzien 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA none; unofficial commercial and cultural relations z the people on Tajwan are maintained through an unofficial instrumentality - the American Institute w Tajwan (AIT) - which has offices w the US and Tajwan; US office at 1700 N. Moore St., Suite 1700, Arlington, VA 22209-1996, telephone: [1] (703) 525-8474, FAX: [1] (703) 841-1385); Tajwan offices at #7 Lane 134, Hsin Yi Road, Section 3, Taipei, Tajwan, telephone: [886] (2) 2162-2000, FAX: [886] (2) 2162-2251; #2 Chung Cheng 3rd Road, 5th Floor, Kaohsiung, Tajwan, telephone: [886] (7) 238-7744, FAX: [886] (7) 238-5237; and the American Trade Center, Room 3208 International Trade Building, Taipei Swiat Trade Center, 333 Keelung Road Section 1, Taipei, Tajwan 10548, telephone: [886] (2) 2720-1550, FAX: [886] (2) 2757-7162
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA none; unofficial commercial and cultural relations z the people of the US are maintained through an unofficial instrumentality, the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office (TECRO), which has its headquarters w Taipei and w the US w Washington, DC; there are also branch offices called Taipei Economic and Cultural Office (TECO) w 12 other US cities
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje involved w complex dispute z Chiny, Malezja, Filipiny, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei over the Wyspy Spratly; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Wyspy Paracelskie are occupied by Chiny, but claimed by Tajwan and Wietnam; w 2003, Chiny and Tajwan became more vocal w rejecting both Japonia's claims to the uninhabited islands of the Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japonia's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone w the East Chiny Sea where all parties engage w hydrocarbon prospecting
Ekonomia Tajwan has a dynamic capitalist economy z gradually decreasing guidance of investment and foreign trade by the authorities. In keeping z this trend, some large, state-owned banks and industrial firms are being privatized. Eksport have provided the primary impetus dla industrialization. The island runs a large trade surplus, and its foreign reserves are among the world's largest. Despite restrictions on cross-strait links, Chiny has overtaken the US to become Tajwan's largest export market and its second-largest source of imports after Japonia. Chiny is also the island's number one destination dla foreign direct investment. Strong trade performance w 2007 pushed Tajwan's Produkt krajowy brutto growth rate above 5%, and unemployment is below 4%.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 221 billion kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 235 billion kWh (2006)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: South Chiny Sea 0 m

highest point: Yu Shan 3,952 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution; water pollution from industrial emissions, raw sewage; contamination of drinking water supplies; trade w endangered species; low-level radioactive waste disposal
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: none of the selected agreements because of Tajwan's international status

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements because of Tajwan's international status
Grupy etniczne Tajwanese (including Hakka) 84%, mainland Chinese 14%, indigenous 2%
Kurs waluty New Tajwan dollars per US dollar - 32.84 (2007), 32.534 (2006), 31.71 (2005), 34.418 (2004), 34.575 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President CHEN Shui-bian (since 20 maj 2000); Vice President Annette LU (LU Hsiu-lien) (since 20 maj 2000)

head of government: Premier (President of the Executive Yuan) CHANG Chun-hsiung (since 21 maj 2007); Vice Premier (Vice President of the Executive Yuan) CHIOU I-jen (since 21 maj 2007)

cabinet: Executive Yuan - (ministers appointed by president on recommendation of premier)

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms (eligible dla a second term); election last held 20 marzec 2004 (next to be held 22 marzec 2008); premier appointed by the president; vice premiers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the premier

election results: CHEN Shui-bian re-elected president; percent of vote - CHEN Shui-bian 50.1%, LIEN Chan 49.9%
Eksport 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Eksport $246.7 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2007)
Eksport 289,200 bbl/day (2006)
Eksport - towary electronic and electrical products, metals, textiles, plastics, chemicals, auto parts (2002)
Eksport - partnerzy Chiny 24%, Hong Kong 15%, US 13.4%, Japonia 6.7% (2007)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red z a dark blue rectangle w the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white sun z 12 triangular rays
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 1.6%

industry: 26.8%

services: 71.5% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5.5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 23 30 N, 121 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location adjacent to both the Tajwan Strait and the Luzon Strait
Ladowiska helikopterow 4 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 6.7%

highest 10%: 41.1% (2002 est.)
Narkotyki regional transit point dla heroin, methamphetamine, and precursor chemicals; transshipment point dla drugs to Japonia; major problem z domestic consumption of methamphetamine and heroin; rising problems z use of ketamine and club drugs
Import 0 kWh (2007)
Import $219.3 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 10.16 billion cu m (2006)
Import 1.208 million bbl/day (2006)
Import - towary electronic and electrical products, machinery, petroleum, precision instruments, organic chemicals, metals (2002)
Import - partnerzy Japonia 21%, Chiny 12.7%, US 12.2%, South Korea 7.1%, Arabia Saudyjska 4.6% (2007)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 7.5% (2007 est.)
Przemysl electronics, petroleum refining, armaments, chemicals, textiles, iron and steel, machinery, cement, food processing, vehicles, consumer products, pharmaceuticals
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 5.54 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.86 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 1.8% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, APEC, BCIE, ICC, IOC, ITUC, WCL, WTO
Nawadniane tereny NA
Sadownictwo Judicial Yuan (justices appointed by the president z consent of the Legislative Yuan)
Sila robocza 10.78 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 5.3%

industry: 36.8%

services: 57.9% (2007 est.)
Granica 0 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 24%

permanent crops: 1%

other: 75% (2001)
Jezyki Mandarin Chinese (official), Tajwanese (Min), Hakka dialects
System prawny based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Legislative Yuan (113 seats - 73 district members elected by popular vote, 34 at-large members elected on basis of proportion of islandwide votes received by participating political parties, 6 elected by popular vote among aboriginal populations; to serve four-year terms); parties must receive 5% of vote to qualify dla at-large seats

elections: Legislative Yuan - last held 12 styczen 2008 (next to be held w styczen 2012)

election results: Legislative Yuan - percent of vote by party - KMT 53.5%, DPP 38.2%, NPSU 2.4%, PFP 0.3%, others 1.6%, independents 4%; seats by party - KMT 81, DPP 27, NPSU 3, PFP 1, independent 1
Zywotnosc total population: 77.56 years

male: 74.65 years

female: 80.74 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 96.1%

male: NA%

female: NA% (2003)
Lokalizacja Eastern Asia, islands bordering the East Chiny Sea, Philippine Sea, South Chiny Sea, and Tajwan Strait, north of the Filipiny, off the southeastern coast of Chiny
Lokalizacja na mapie Southeast Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Flota handlowa total: 102 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,537,256 GRT/4,203,423 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 33, cargo 20, chemical tanker 2, container 21, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 15, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 2

foreign-owned: 4 (Kanada 3, Francja 1)

registered w other countries: 489 (Bahamas 1, Boliwia 1, Kambodza 1, Honduras 2, Hong Kong 11, Indonezja 2, Wlochy 11, Liberia 82, Panama 306, Singapur 60, Tajlandia 1, UK 11, unknown 3) (2007)
Wojsko Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps), Air Force, Coast Guard Administration, Armed Forces Reserve Command, Combined Service Forces Command, Armed Forces Police Command
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.2% (2006; to increase to 2.85% w 2007)
Swieto narodowe Republic Day (Anniversary of the Chinese Revolution), 10 pazdziernik (1911)
Narodowosc noun: Tajwan (singular and plural)

note: example - he or she is from Tajwan; they are from Tajwan

adjective: Tajwan
Naturalne zagrozenia earthquakes and typhoons
Surowce naturalne small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, and asbestos
Wspolczynnik migracji 0.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi condensate 25 km; gas 661 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Frank HSIEH or HSIEH Chang-ting] (acting); Kuomintang or KMT (Nationalist Party) [WU Po-hsiung]; Non-Partisan Solidarity Union or NPSU [CHANG Po-ya]; People First Party or PFP [James SOONG]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Tajwan independence movement, various business and environmental groups

note: debate on Tajwan independence has become acceptable within the mainstream of domestic politics on Tajwan; political liberalization and the increased representation of opposition parties w Tajwan's legislature have opened public debate on the island's national identity; a broad popular consensus has developed that the island currently enjoys sovereign independence and - whatever the ultimate outcome regarding reunification or independence - that Tajwan's people must have the deciding voice; public opinion polls consistently show a substantial majority of Tajwan people supports maintaining Tajwan's status quo dla the foreseeable future; advocates of Tajwan independence oppose the stand that the island will eventually unify z mainland Chiny; goals of the Tajwan independence movement include establishing a sovereign nation on Tajwan and entering the UN; other organizations supporting Tajwan independence include the Swiat United Formosans dla Niepodleglosc and the Organization dla Tajwan Nation Building
Ludnosc 22,858,872 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 0.95% (2007 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.304% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 140, FM 229, shortwave 49
Linie kolejowe total: 1,588 km

standard gauge: 345 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 1,093 km 1.067-m gauge

note: 150 km .762-m gauge (belonging primarily to Tajwan Sugar Corporation and Tajwan Forestry Bureau; some to other entities) (2007)
Religie mixture of Buddhist and Taoist 93%, Christian 4.5%, other 2.5%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.083 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.967 male(s)/female

total population: 1.026 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 20 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: provides telecommunications service dla every business and private need

domestic: thoroughly modern; completely digitalized

international: country code - 886; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; 2 satellite earth stations
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 14.497 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 23.249 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 76 (46 digital and 30 analog)
Uksztaltowanie terenu eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently rolling plains w west
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.12 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 3.9% (2007)
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