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Szwajcaria (2008)

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Szwajcaria 2008 roku

 Szwajcaria
Podzial administracyjny 26 cantons (cantons, singular - canton w French; cantoni, singular - cantone w Italian; Kantone, singular - Kanton w German); Aargau, Appenzell Ausser-Rhoden, Appenzell Inner-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Geneve, Glarus, Graubunden, Jura, Luzern, Neuchatel, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Sankt Gallen, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau, Ticino, Uri, Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zurich
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 16.1% (male 630,341/female 584,167)


15-64 years: 68.2% (male 2,596,996/female 2,553,108)


65 years and over: 15.8% (male 489,895/female 700,154) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo grains, fruits, vegetables; meat, eggs
Lotniska 65 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 42


over 3,047 m: 3


2,438 to 3,047 m: 4


1,524 to 2,437 m: 12


914 to 1,523 m: 7


under 914 m: 16 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 23


under 914 m: 23 (2007)
Terytorium total: 41,290 sq km


land: 39,770 sq km


water: 1,520 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey
Tlo historyczne The Swiss Confederation was founded w 1291 as a defensive alliance among three cantons. In succeeding years, other localities joined the original three. The Swiss Confederation secured its independence from the Holy Roman Empire w 1499. Szwajcaria's sovereignty and neutrality have long been honored by the major European powers, and the country was not involved w either of the two Swiat Wars. The political and economic integration of Europe over the past half century, as well as Szwajcaria's role w many UN and international organizations, has strengthened Szwajcaria's ties z its neighbors. However, the country did not officially become a UN member until 2002. Szwajcaria remains active w many UN and international organizations but retains a strong commitment to neutrality.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 9.66 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $155.5 billion


expenditures: $154.2 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Bern


geographic coordinates: 46 57 N, 7 26 E


time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat temperate, but varies z altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers z occasional showers
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja revision of Konstytucja of 1874 approved by the Federal Parliament 18 grudzien 1998, adopted by referendum 18 kwiecien 1999, officially entered into force 1 styczen 2000
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Swiss Confederation


conventional short form: Szwajcaria


local long form: Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft (German); Confederation Suisse (French); Confederazione Svizzera (Italian); Confederaziun Svizra (Romansh)


local short form: Schweiz (German); Suisse (French); Svizzera (Italian); Svizra (Romansh)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8.51 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $1.34 trillion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Peter R. CONEWAY


embassy: Jubilaeumsstrasse 93, CH-3001 Bern


mailing address: use embassy street address


telephone: [41] (031) 357 70 11


FAX: [41] (031) 357 73 44
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Urs ZISWILER


chancery: 2900 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 745-7900


FAX: [1] (202) 387-2564


consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje none
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $1.1 billion (1995)
Ekonomia Szwajcaria is a peaceful, prosperous, and stable modern market economy z low unemployment, a highly skilled labor force, and a per capita Produkt krajowy brutto larger than that of the big Western European economies. The Swiss w recent years have brought their economic practices largely into conformity z the EU's to enhance their international competitiveness. Szwajcaria remains a safehaven dla investors, because it has maintained a degree of bank secrecy and has kept up the franc's long-term external value. Reflecting the anemic economic conditions of Europe, Produkt krajowy brutto growth stagnated during the 2001-03 period, improved during 2004-05, and jumped to 2.9% w 2006, and 2.6% w 2007. Unemployment has remained at less than half the EU average.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 58.26 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 32 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 38.35 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 56.1 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Lake Maggiore 195 m


highest point: Dufourspitze 4,634 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution from vehicle emissions and open-air burning; acid rain; water pollution from increased use of agricultural fertilizers; loss of biodiversity
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Grupy etniczne German 65%, French 18%, Italian 10%, Romansch 1%, other 6%
Kurs waluty Swiss francs per US dollar - 1.1973 (2007), 1.2539 (2006), 1.2452 (2005), 1.2435 (2004), 1.3467 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Pascal COUCHEPIN (since 1 styczen 2008); Vice President Hans-Rudolf MERZ (since 1 styczen 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government representing the Federal Council; the Federal Council is the formal chief of state and head of government whose council members, rotating w one-year terms as federal president, represent the Council


head of government: President Pascal COUCHEPIN (since 1 styczen 2008); Vice President Hans-Rudolf MERZ (since 1 styczen 2008)


cabinet: Federal Council or Bundesrat (in German), Conseil Federal (in French), Consiglio Federale (in Italian) elected by the Federal Assembly usually from among its members dla a four-year term


elections: president and vice president elected by the Federal Assembly from among the members of the Federal Council dla a one-year term (they may not serve consecutive terms); election last held on 12 grudzien 2007 (next to be held w grudzien 2008)


election results: Pascal COUCHEPIN elected president; percent of Federal Assembly vote - 80.0%; Hans-Rudolf MERZ elected vice president; percent of Federal Assembly vote - 86.5%
Eksport 32 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $201 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 11,360 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary machinery, chemicals, metals, watches, agricultural products
Eksport - partnerzy Niemcy 19.7%, US 11.1%, Wlochy 8.8%, Francja 8.6%, UK 4.8% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red square z a bold, equilateral white cross w the center that does not extend to the edges of the flag
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 1.5%


industry: 34%


services: 64.5% (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 2.6% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 47 00 N, 8 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe; along z southeastern Francja, northern Wlochy, and southwestern Austria, has the highest elevations w the Alps
Ladowiska helikopterow 2 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.9%


highest 10%: 25.9% (2000)
Narkotyki a major international financial center vulnerable to the layering and integration stages of money laundering; despite significant legislation and reporting requirements, secrecy rules persist and nonresidents are permitted to conduct business through offshore entities and various intermediaries; transit country dla and consumer of South American cocaine, Southwest Asian heroin, and Western European synthetics; domestic cannabis cultivation and limited ecstasy production
Import 38.35 billion kWh (2005)
Import $189.6 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 3.26 billion cu m (2005)
Import 267,000 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery, chemicals, vehicles, metals; agricultural products, textiles
Import - partnerzy Niemcy 31.7%, Wlochy 10.6%, Francja 10%, US 6.2%, Holandia 4.7%, Austria 4.3% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 1 sierpien 1291 (founding of the Swiss Confederation)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 6.5% (2006 est.)
Przemysl machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments, tourism, banking, and insurance
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 4.28 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 4.77 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 3.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 0.6% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB (nonregional members), AfDB, Australia Group, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 250 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Federal Supreme Court (judges elected dla six-year terms by the Federal Assembly)
Sila robocza 3.85 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 4.6%


industry: 26.3%


services: 69.1% (1998)
Granica total: 1,852 km


border countries: Austria 164 km, Francja 573 km, Wlochy 740 km, Liechtenstein 41 km, Niemcy 334 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 9.91%


permanent crops: 0.58%


other: 89.51% (2005)
Jezyki German (official) 63.7%, French (official) 20.4%, Italian (official) 6.5%, Serbo-Chorwacjan 1.5%, Albanian 1.3%, Portuguese 1.2%, Spanish 1.1%, English 1%, Romansch (official) 0.5%, other 2.8% (2000 census)


note: German, French, Italian, and Romansch are all national and official languages
System prawny civil law system influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts, except z respect to federal decrees of general obligatory character; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung (in German), Assemblee Federale (in French), Assemblea Federale (in Italian) consists of the Council of States or Standerat (in German), Conseil des Etats (in French), Consiglio degli Stati (in Italian) (46 seats; membership consists of 2 representatives from each canton and 1 from each half canton; to serve four-year terms) and the National Council or Nationalrat (in German), Conseil National (in French), Consiglio Nazionale (in Italian) (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)


elections: Council of States - last held w most cantons on 19 pazdziernik 2003 (each canton determines when the next election will be held); National Council - last held on 21 pazdziernik 2007 (next to be held w pazdziernik 2011)


election results: Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CVP 15, FDP 14, SVP 8, SPS 6, other 3; National Council - percent of vote by party - SVP 29%, SPS 19.5%, FDP 15.6%, CVP 14.6%, Greens 9.6%, other 11.7%; seats by party - SVP 62, SPS 43, FDP 31, CVP 31, Green Party 20, other small parties 13; note - seating dla the Council of States as of grudzien 2007 is CVP 16, FDP 12, SVP 7, SPS 9, other 2
Zywotnosc total population: 80.62 years


male: 77.8 years


female: 83.59 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99%


male: 99%


female: 99% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Central Europe, east of Francja, north of Wlochy
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Flota handlowa total: 32 ships (1000 GRT or over) 577,765 GRT/918,974 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 13, cargo 8, chemical tanker 4, container 6, specialized tanker 1


registered w other countries: 121 (Antigua i Barbuda 5, Bahamas 2, Cypr 3, Francja 3, Indonezja 3, Wlochy 5, Liberia 11, Malta 22, Wyspy Marshalla 14, Panama 26, Paragwaj 1, Portugalia 2, Rosja 6, Singapur 2, St Vincent and The Grenadines 12, Tonga 1, UK 1, Vanuatu 2) (2007)
Wojsko Swiss Armed Forces: Land Forces, Swiss Air Force (Schweizer Luftwaffe); Szwajcaria has no navy, but maintains a fleet of military patrol boats to patrol Swiss borders (2006)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Founding of the Swiss Confederation, 1 sierpien (1291)
Narodowosc noun: Swiss (singular and plural)


adjective: Swiss
Naturalne zagrozenia avalanches, landslides, flash floods
Surowce naturalne hydropower potential, timber, salt
Wspolczynnik migracji 2.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 1,781 km; oil 94 km; refined products 7 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Green Party (Gruene Partei der Schweiz or Gruene, Parti Ecologiste Suisse or Les Verts, Partito Ecologista Svizzero or I Verdi, Partida Ecologica Svizra or La Verda) [Ruth GENNER]; Christian Democratic People's Party (Christlichdemokratische Volkspartei der Schweiz or CVP, Parti Democrate-Chretien Suisse or PDC, Partito Democratico-Cristiano Popolare Svizzero or PDC, Partida Cristiandemocratica dalla Svizra or PCD) [Christophe DARBELLAY]; Radical Free Democratic Party (Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei der Schweiz or FDP, Parti Radical-Democratique Suisse or PRD, Partitio Liberal-Radicale Svizzero or PLR) [Fulvio PELLI]; Social Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz or SPS, Parti Socialist Suisse or PSS, Partito Socialista Svizzero or PSS, Partida Socialdemocratica de la Svizra or PSS) [Hans-Juerg FEHR]; Swiss People's Party (Schweizerische Volkspartei or SVP, Union Democratique du Centre or UDC, Unione Democratica de Centro or UDC, Uniun Democratica dal Center or UDC) [Ueli MAURER]; and other minor parties
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 7,554,661 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 0.381% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 4, FM 113 (plus many low-power stations), shortwave 2 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 4,839 km


standard gauge: 3,561 km 1.435-m gauge (3,195 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 1,268 km 1.000-m gauge (1,274 km electrified); 10 km 0.800-m gauge (10 km electrified) (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic 41.8%, Protestant 35.3%, Muslim 4.3%, Orthodox 1.8%, other Christian 0.4%, other 1%, unspecified 4.3%, none 11.1% (2000 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.079 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.017 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female


total population: 0.969 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure z excellent domestic and international services


domestic: ranked among leading countries dla fixed-line teledensity and infrastructure; mobile-cellular subscribership roughly 100 per 100 persons; extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks


international: country code - 41; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki and Ocean Indyjski)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 5.04 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 7.418 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 115 (plus 1,919 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly mountains (Alps w south, Jura w northwest) z a central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.44 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 3.1% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 65 km (Rhine River between Basel-Rheinfelden and Schaffhausen-Bodensee) (2003)
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