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Swiat (2008)

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Swiat 2008 roku

 Swiat
Podzial administracyjny 266 nations, dependent areas, and other entities
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 27.4% (male 931,551,498/female 875,646,416)


15-64 years: 65.1% (male 2,174,605,518/female 2,124,494,703)


65 years and over: 7.5% (male 217,451,123/female 278,474,917) (2007 est.)
Lotniska total airports - 49,024


top ten by passengers: Atlanta - 84,846,639; Chicago - 77,028,134; London - 67,530,197; Tokyo - 65,810,672; Los Angeles - 61,041,066; Dallas/Fort Worth - 60,226,138; Paris - 56,849,567; Frankfurt - 52,810,683; Beijing - 48,654,770; Denver - 47,325,016


top ten by cargo (metric tons): Memphis - 3,692,081; Hong Kong - 3,609,780; Anchorage - 2,691,395; Seoul - 2,336,572; Tokyo - 2,280,830; Shanghai - 2,168,122; Paris - 2,130,724; Frankfurt - 2,127,646; Louisville (US) - 1,983,032; Singapur - 1,931,881 (2006)
Terytorium total: 510.072 million sq km


land: 148.94 million sq km


water: 361.132 million sq km


note: 70.8% of the world's surface is water, 29.2% is land
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci land area about 16 times the size of the US
Tlo historyczne Globally, the 20th century was marked by: (a) two devastating world wars; (b) the Great Depression of the 1930s; (c) the end of vast colonial empires; (d) rapid advances w science and technology, from the first airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina (US) to the landing on the moon; (e) the Cold War between the Western alliance and the Warsaw Pact nations; (f) a sharp rise w living standards w North America, Europe, and Japonia; (g) increased concerns about the environment, including loss of forests, shortages of energy and water, the decline w biological diversity, and air pollution; (h) the onset of the AIDS epidemic; and (i) the ultimate emergence of the US as the only world superpower. The planet's population continues to explode: from 1 billion w 1820, to 2 billion w 1930, 3 billion w 1960, 4 billion w 1974, 5 billion w 1988, and 6 billion w 2000. For the 21st century, the continued exponential growth w science and technology raises both hopes (e.g., advances w medicine) and fears (e.g., development of even more lethal weapons of war).
Wspolczynnik narodzin 20.09 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Klimat a wide equatorial band of hot and humid tropical climates - bordered north and south by subtropical temperate zones - that separate two large areas of cold and dry polar climates
Linia brzegowa 356,000 km


note: 94 nations and other entities are islands that border no other countries, they include: Samoa Amerykanskie, Anguilla, Antigua i Barbuda, Aruba, Wyspy Ashmore i Cartiera, The Bahamas, Bahrajn, Wyspa Baker, Barbados, Bermudy, Wyspa Bouveta, Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego, Brytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze, Republika Zielonego Przyladka, Kajmany, Wyspa Bozego Narodzenia, Clipperton, Wyspy Kokosowe, Komory, Wyspy Cooka, Wyspy Morza Koralowego, Kuba, Cypr, Dominika, Falklandy, Wyspy Owcze, Fidzi, Polinezja Francuska, Francuskie Terytoria Poludniowe i Antarktyczne, Grenlandia, Grenada, Guam, Guernsey, Wyspy Heard i McDonalda, Howland, Islandia, Wyspa Man, Jamajka, Jan majen, Japonia, Jarvis, Jersey, Johnston, Kingman, Kiribati, Madagaskar, Malediwy, Malta, Wyspy Marshalla, Martynika, Mauritius, Majotta, Federated States of Micronesia, Midway, Montserrat, Nauru, Navassa, Nowa Kaledonia, Nowa Zelandia, Niue, Wyspa Norfolk, Mariany Polnocne, Palau, Palmyra, Wyspy Paracelskie, Filipiny, Pitcairn, Portoryko, Reunion, Saint-Barthelemy, Swieta Helena, Saint Kitts i Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint-Pierre i Miquelon, Saint Vincent i Grenadyny, Samoa, Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca, Seszele, Singapur, Wyspy Salomona, Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy, Wyspy Spratly, Sri Lanka, Svalbard, Tokelau, Tonga, Trynidad i Tobago, Turks i Caicos, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Wyspy Dziewicze, Wake, Wallis i Futuna, Tajwan
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8.37 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $54.31 trillion


note: this figure is the sum total of all countries' external debt, both public and private (2004 est.)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje stretching over 250,000 km, the world's 322 international land boundaries separate 194 independent states and 70 dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, and other miscellaneous entities; ethnicity, culture, race, religion, and language have divided states into separate political entities as much as history, physical terrain, political fiat, or conquest, resulting w sometimes arbitrary and imposed boundaries; most maritime states have claimed limits that include territorial seas and exclusive economic zones; overlapping limits due to adjacent or opposite coasts create the potential dla 430 bilateral maritime boundaries of which 209 have agreements that include contiguous and non-contiguous segments; boundary, borderland/resource, and territorial disputes vary w intensity from managed or dormant to violent or militarized; undemarcated, indefinite, porous, and unmanaged boundaries tend to encourage illegal cross-border activities, uncontrolled migration, and confrontation; territorial disputes may evolve from historical and/or cultural claims, or they may be brought on by resource competition; ethnic and cultural clashes continue to be responsible dla much of the territorial fragmentation and internal displacement of the estimated 6.6 million people and cross-border displacements of 8.6 million refugees around the world as of early 2006; just over one million refugees were repatriated w the same period; other sources of contention include access to water and mineral (especially hydrocarbon) resources, fisheries, and arable land; armed conflict prevails not so much between the uniformed armed forces of independent states as between stateless armed entities that detract from the sustenance and welfare of local populations, leaving the community of nations to cope z resultant refugees, hunger, disease, impoverishment, and environmental degradation
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie ODA, $106.4 billion (2005)
Ekonomia Global output rose by 5.2% w 2007, led by Chiny (11.4%), Indie (8.5%), and Rosja (7.4%). The 14 other successor nations of the USSR and the other old Warsaw Pact nations again experienced widely divergent growth rates; the three Baltic nations continued as strong performers, w the 8%-10% range of growth. From 2006 to 2007 growth rates slowed w all the major industrial countries except dla the Wielka Brytania (3.0%). Analysts attribute the slowdown to uncertainties w the financial markets and lowered consumer confidence. Swiatwide, nations varied widely w their growth results. Externally, the nation-state, as a bedrock economic-political institution, is steadily losing control over international flows of people, goods, funds, and technology. Internally, the central government often finds its control over resources slipping as separatist regional movements - typically based on ethnicity - gain momentum, e.g., w many of the successor states of the former Soviet Union, w the former Jugoslawia, w Indie, w Irak, w Indonezja, and w Kanada. Externally, the central government is losing decisionmaking powers to international bodies, notably the EU. In Western Europe, governments face the difficult political problem of channeling resources away from welfare programs w order to increase investment and strengthen incentives to seek employment. The addition of 80 million people each year to an already overcrowded globe is exacerbating the problems of pollution, desertification, underemployment, epidemics, and famine. Because of their own internal problems and priorities, the industrialized countries devote insufficient resources to deal effectively z the poorer areas of the world, which, at least from an economic point of view, are becoming further marginalized. The introduction of the euro as the common currency of much of Western Europe w styczen 1999, while paving the way dla an integrated economic powerhouse, poses economic risks because of varying levels of income and cultural and political differences among the participating nations. The terrorist attacks on the US on 11 wrzesien 2001 accentuated a growing risk to global prosperity, illustrated, dla example, by the reallocation of resources away from investment to anti-terrorist programs. The opening of war w marzec 2003 between a US-led coalition and Irak added new uncertainties to global economic prospects. After the initial coalition victory, the complex political difficulties and the high economic cost of establishing domestic order w Irak became major global problems that continued through 2007.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 16.78 trillion kWh (2005 est.)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 635.6 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 625.7 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 18.55 trillion kWh (2005 est.)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,540 m


note: w the oceanic realm, Challenger Deep w the Mariana Trench is the lowest point, lying -10,924 m below the surface of the Ocean Spokojny


highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy large areas subject to overpopulation, industrial disasters, pollution (air, water, acid rain, toxic substances), loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife, soil degradation, soil depletion, erosion; global warming becoming a greater concern
Eksport 635.6 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $13.86 trillion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Eksport 1.242 trillion cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 63.76 million bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services


top ten - share of world trade: electrical machinery, including computers 14.8%; mineral fuels, including oil, coal, gas, and refined products 14.4%; nuclear reactors, boilers, and parts 14.2%; cars, trucks, and buses 8.9%; scientific and precision instruments 3.5%; plastics 3.4%; iron and steel 2.7%; organic chemicals 2.6%; pharmaceutical products 2.6%; diamonds, pearls, and precious stones 1.9% (2006 est.)
Eksport - partnerzy US 15.1%, Niemcy 7.4%, Chiny 5.9%, Francja 4.6%, UK 4.5%, Japonia 4.4% (2006)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 4%


industry: 32%


services: 64% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5.2% (2007 est.)
Polozenie geograficzne the world is now thought to be about 4.55 billion years old, just about one-third of the 13.7-billion-year age estimated dla the universe
Ladowiska helikopterow 1,359 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.5%


highest 10%: 29.8% (2002 est.)
Narkotyki cocaine: worldwide coca leaf cultivation w 2005 amounted to 208,500 hectares; Kolumbia produced slightly more than two-thirds of the worldwide crop, followed by Peru and Boliwia; potential pure cocaine production rose to 900 from 645 metric tons w 2005 - partially due to improved methodologies used to calculate levels of production; Kolumbia conducts aggressive coca eradication campaign, but both Peruvian and Boliwian Governments are hesitant to eradicate coca w key growing areas; 551 metric tons of export-quality cocaine (85% pure) is documented to have been seized or destroyed w 2005; US consumption of export quality cocaine is estimated to have been w excess of 380 metric tons



opiates: worldwide illicit opium poppy cultivation reached 208,500 hectares w 2005; potential opium production of 4,990 metric tons was only a 9% decrease over 2004's highest total recorded since estimates began w mid-1980s; Afganistan is world's primary opium producer, accounting dla 90% of the global supply; Southeast Asia - responsible dla 9% of global opium - saw marginal increases w production; Latin America produced 1% of global opium, but most was refined into heroin destined dla the US market; if all potential opium was processed into pure heroin, the potential global production would be 577 metric tons of heroin w 2005
Import 625.7 billion kWh (2005)
Import $13.81 trillion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Import 796 billion cu m (2005)
Import 63.18 million bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services


top ten - share of world trade: see listing dla exports
Import - partnerzy Chiny 9.8%, Niemcy 8.8%, US 8.6%, Japonia 5.6% (2006)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5% (2007 est.)
Przemysl dominated by the onrush of technology, especially w computers, robotics, telecommunications, and medicines and medical equipment; most of these advances take place w OECD nations; only a small portion of non-OECD countries have succeeded w rapidly adjusting to these technological forces; the accelerated development of new industrial (and agricultural) technology is complicating already grim environmental problems
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 43.52 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 46.32 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 40.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja developed countries 1% to 4% typically; developing countries 5% to 20% typically; national inflation rates vary widely w individual cases, from declining prices w Japonia to hyperinflation w one Third Swiat countries (Zimbabwe); inflation rates have declined dla most countries dla the last several years, held w check by increasing international competition from several low wage countries (2005 est.)
Nawadniane tereny 2,770,980 sq km (2003)
Sila robocza 3.001 billion (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 40%


industry: 20.5%


services: 39.4% (2007 est.)
Granica the land boundaries w the world total 251,060 km (not counting shared boundaries twice); two nations, Chiny and Rosja, each border 14 other countries


note: 45 nations and other areas are landlocked, these include: Afganistan, Andora, Armenia, Austria, Azerbejdzan, Bialorus, Bhutan, Boliwia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie, Czad, Czechy, Etiopia, Watykan, Wegry, Kazachstan, Kosowo, Kirgistan, Laos, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luksemburg, Macedonia, Malawi, Mali, Moldawia, Mongolia, Nepal, Niger, Paragwaj, Ruanda, San Marino, Serbia, Slowacja, Suazi, Szwajcaria, Tadzykistan, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Zachodni Brzeg, Zambia, Zimbabwe; two of these, Liechtenstein and Uzbekistan, are doubly landlocked
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 13.31%


permanent crops: 4.71%


other: 81.98% (2005)
Jezyki Mandarin Chinese 13.22%, Spanish 4.88%, English 4.68%, Arabic 3.12%, Hindi 2.74%, Portuguese 2.69%, Bengali 2.59%, Rosjan 2.2%, Japoniaese 1.85%, Standard German 1.44%, Wu Chinese 1.17% (2005 est.)


note: percents are dla "first language" speakers only
System prawny all members of the UN are parties to the statute that established the International Court of Justice (ICJ) or Swiat Court
Zywotnosc total population: 65.82 years


male: 63.89 years


female: 67.84 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 82%


male: 87%


female: 77%


note: over two-thirds of the world's 785 million illiterate adults are found w only eight countries (Indie, Chiny, Bangladesz, Pakistan, Nigeria, Etiopia, Indonezja, and Egipt); of all the illiterate adults w the world, two-thirds are women; extremely low literacy rates are concentrated w three regions, South and West Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Arab states, where around one-third of the men and half of all women are illiterate (2005 est.)
Lokalizacja na mapie Physical Map of the Swiat, Political Map of the Swiat, Standard Time Zones of the Swiat
Morskie obszary a variety of situations exist, but w general, most countries make the following claims measured from the mean low-tide baseline as described w the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: territorial sea - 12 nm, contiguous zone - 24 nm, and exclusive economic zone - 200 nm; additional zones provide dla exploitation of continental shelf resources and an exclusive fishing zone; boundary situations z neighboring states prevent many countries from extending their fishing or economic zones to a full 200 nm
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) roughly 2% of gross world product (2005 est.)
Naturalne zagrozenia large areas subject to severe weather (tropical cyclones), natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions)
Surowce naturalne the rapid depletion of nonrenewable mineral resources, the depletion of forest areas and wetlands, the extinction of animal and plant species, and the deterioration w air and water quality (especially w Eastern Europe, the former USSR, and Chiny) pose serious long-term problems that governments and peoples are only beginning to address
Ludnosc 6,602,224,175 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.167% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
Linie kolejowe total: 1,370,782 km (2006)
Religie Christians 33.32% (of which Roman Catholics 16.99%, Protestants 5.78%, Orthodox 3.53%, Anglicans 1.25%), Muslims 21.01%, Hindus 13.26%, Buddhists 5.84%, Sikhs 0.35%, Jews 0.23%, Baha'is 0.12%, other religions 11.78%, non-religious 11.77%, atheists 2.32% (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.064 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.024 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.781 male(s)/female


total population: 1.014 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
System telefoniczny general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: NA
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 1,263,367,600 (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 2,168,433,600 (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne NA
Uksztaltowanie terenu the greatest ocean depth is the Mariana Trench at 10,924 m w the Ocean Spokojny
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.59 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 30% combined unemployment and underemployment w many non-industrialized countries; developed countries typically 4%-12% unemployment (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 671,886 km (2004)
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