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Stany Zjednoczone (2008)

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Stany Zjednoczone 2008 roku

 Stany Zjednoczone
Podzial administracyjny 50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiena, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Meksyk, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 20.2% (male 31,152,050/female 29,777,438)

15-64 years: 67.2% (male 100,995,752/female 101,365,035)

65 years and over: 12.6% (male 15,858,477/female 21,991,195) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, corn, other grains, fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish; forest products
Lotniska 14,947 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 5,143

over 3,047 m: 191

2,438 to 3,047 m: 224

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1,452

914 to 1,523 m: 2,323

under 914 m: 953 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 9,804

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 153

914 to 1,523 m: 1,732

under 914 m: 7,912 (2007)
Terytorium total: 9,826,630 sq km

land: 9,161,923 sq km

water: 664,707 sq km

note: includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci about half the size of Rosja; about three-tenths the size of Africa; about half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazylia); slightly larger than Chiny; more than twice the size of the Unia Europejska
Tlo historyczne Britain's American colonies broke z the mother country w 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the Stany Zjednoczone of America following the Treaty of Paris w 1783. During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions. The two most traumatic experiences w the nation's history were the Civil War (1861-65) and the Great Depression of the 1930s. Buoyed by victories w Swiat Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War w 1991, the US remains the world's most powerful nation state. The economy is marked by steady growth, low unemployment and inflation, and rapid advances w technology.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 14.16 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $2.568 trillion

expenditures: $2.731 trillion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Washington, DC

geographic coordinates: 38 53 N, 77 02 W

time difference: UTC-5 (during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday w marzec; ends first Sunday w listopad

note: the US is divided into six time zones
Klimat mostly temperate, but tropical w Hawaii and Florida, arctic w Alaska, semiarid w the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid w the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures w the northwest are ameliorated occasionally w styczen and luty by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains
Linia brzegowa 19,924 km
Konstytucja 17 wrzesien 1787, effective 4 marzec 1789
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Stany Zjednoczone of America

conventional short form: Stany Zjednoczone

abbreviation: US or USA
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8.26 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $12.25 trillion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Zalezne tereny Samoa Amerykanskie, Wyspa Baker, Guam, Howland, Jarvis, Johnston, Kingman, Midway, Navassa, Mariany Polnocne, Palmyra, Portoryko, Wyspy Dziewicze, Wake

note: from 18 lipiec 1947 until 1 pazdziernik 1994, the US administered the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands; it entered into a political relationship z all four political units: the Mariany Polnocne is a commonwealth w political union z the US (effective 3 listopad 1986); the Republic of the Wyspy Marshalla signed a Compact of Free Association z the US (effective 21 pazdziernik 1986); the Federated States of Micronesia signed a Compact of Free Association z the US (effective 3 listopad 1986); Palau concluded a Compact of Free Association z the US (effective 1 pazdziernik 1994)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje the U.S. has intensified domestic security measures and is collaborating closely z its neighbors, Kanada and Meksyk, to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across the international borders; abundant rainfall w recent years along much of the Meksyk-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement w the Bering Sea still awaits Rosjan Duma ratification; managed maritime boundary disputes z Kanada at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; The Bahamas and US have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Kuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa; US has made no territorial claim w Antarktyda (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other states; Wyspy Marshalla claims Wake; Tokelau included Samoa Amerykanskie's Swains Island among the islands listed w its 2006 draft constitution
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $6.9 billion (1997)
Ekonomia The US has the largest and most technologically powerful economy w the world, z a per capita Produkt krajowy brutto of $46,000. In this market-oriented economy, private individuals and business firms make most of the decisions, and the federal and state governments buy needed goods and services predominantly w the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy greater flexibility than their counterparts w Western Europe and Japonia w decisions to expand capital plant, to lay off surplus workers, and to develop new products. At the same time, they face higher barriers to enter their rivals' home markets than foreign firms face entering US markets. US firms are at or near the forefront w technological advances, especially w computers and w medical, aerospace, and military equipment; their advantage has narrowed since the end of Swiat War II. The onrush of technology largely explains the gradual development of a "two-tier labor market" w which those at the bottom lack the education and the professional/technical skills of those at the top and, more and more, fail to get comparable pay raises, health insurance coverage, and other benefits. Since 1975, practically all the gains w household income have gone to the top 20% of households. The response to the terrorist attacks of 11 wrzesien 2001 showed the remarkable resilience of the economy. The war w marzec-kwiecien 2003 between a US-led coalition and Irak, and the subsequent occupation of Irak, required major shifts w national resources to the military. The rise w Produkt krajowy brutto w 2004-07 was undergirded by substantial gains w labor productivity. Hurricane Katrina caused extensive damage w the Gulf Coast region w sierpien 2005, but had a small impact on overall Produkt krajowy brutto growth dla the year. Soaring oil prices w 2005-2007 threatened inflation and unemployment, yet the economy continued to grow through year-end 2007. Imported oil accounts dla about two-thirds of US consumption. Long-term problems include inadequate investment w economic infrastructure, rapidly rising medical and pension costs of an aging population, sizable trade and budget deficits, and stagnation of family income w the lower economic groups. The merchandise trade deficit reached a record $847 billion w 2007. Together, these problems caused a marked reduction w the value and status of the dollar worldwide w 2007.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 3.816 trillion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 19.8 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 44.53 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 4.062 trillion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Death Valley -86 m

highest point: Mount McKinley 6,198 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution resulting w acid rain w both the US and Kanada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; limited natural fresh water resources w much of the western part of the country require careful management; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes
Grupy etniczne white 81.7%, black 12.9%, Asian 4.2%, Amerindian and Alaska native 1%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.2% (2003 est.)

note: a separate listing dla Hispanic is not included because the US Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean a person of Latin American descent (including persons of Kuban, Mexican, or Puerto Rican origin) living w the US who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.)
Kurs waluty British pounds per US dollar: 0.4993 (2007), 0.5418 (2006), 0.5500 (2005), 0.5462 (2004), 0.6125 (2003)

Canadian dollars per US dollar: 1.0724 (2007), 1.1334 (2006), 1.2118 (2005), 1.3010 (2004), 1.4011 (2003)

Japoniaese yen per US dollar: 117.99 (2007), 116.18 (2006) 110.22 (2005), 108.19 (2004), 115.93 (2003)

euros per US dollar: 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.8860 (2003)

Chinese yuan per US dollar: 7.61 (2007), 7.97 (2006), 8.1943 (2005), 8.2768 (2004), 8.2770 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President George W. BUSH (since 20 styczen 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 styczen 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President George W. BUSH (since 20 styczen 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 styczen 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president z Senate approval

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by a college of representatives who are elected directly from each state; president and vice president serve four-year terms (eligible dla a second term); election last held 2 listopad 2004 (next to be held on 4 listopad 2008)

election results: George W. BUSH reelected president; percent of popular vote - George W. BUSH 50.9%, John KERRY 48.1%, other 1.0%
Eksport 19.8 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $1.14 trillion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 19.8 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 1.048 million bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary agricultural products (soybeans, fruit, corn) 9.2%, industrial supplies (organic chemicals) 26.8%, capital goods (transistors, aircraft, motor vehicle parts, computers, telecommunications equipment) 49.0%, consumer goods (automobiles, medicines) 15.0% (2003)
Eksport - partnerzy Kanada 22.2%, Meksyk 12.9%, Japonia 5.8%, Chiny 5.3%, UK 4.4% (2006)
Rok podatkowy 1 pazdziernik - 30 wrzesien
Opis flagi 13 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating z white; there is a blue rectangle w the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars arranged w nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating z rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; known as Old Glory; the design and colors have been the basis dla a number of other flags, including Chile, Liberia, Malezja, and Portoryko
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 0.9%

industry: 20.6%

services: 78.5% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 2.2% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 38 00 N, 97 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne world's third-largest country by size (after Rosja and Kanada) and by population (after Chiny and Indie); Mt. McKinley is highest point w North America and Death Valley the lowest point on the continent
Ladowiska helikopterow 146 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 30% (2007 est.)
Narkotyki world's largest consumer of cocaine, shipped from Kolumbia through Meksyk and the Caribbean; consumer of ecstasy and of Mexican heroin, marijuana and methamphetamine; minor consumer of high-quality Southeast Asian heroin; illicit producer of cannabis, marijuana, depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and methamphetamine; money-laundering center
Import 44.53 billion kWh (2005)
Import $1.987 trillion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 117.9 billion cu m (2005)
Import 13.15 million bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary agricultural products 4.9%, industrial supplies 32.9% (crude oil 8.2%), capital goods 30.4% (computers, telecommunications equipment, motor vehicle parts, office machines, electric power machinery), consumer goods 31.8% (automobiles, clothing, medicines, furniture, toys) (2003)
Import - partnerzy Kanada 16%, Chiny 15.9%, Meksyk 10.4%, Japonia 7.9%, Niemcy 4.8% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 4 lipiec 1776 (from Great Britain)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 0.5% (2007 est.)
Przemysl leading industrial power w the world, highly diversified and technologically advanced; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 6.37 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 7.02 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 2.7% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB (nonregional members), AfDB, ANZUS, APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CE (observer), CERN (observer), CP, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SECI (observer), SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 223,850 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (nine justices; nominated by the president and confirmed z the advice and consent of the Senate; appointed to serve dla life); Stany Zjednoczone Courts of Appeal; Stany Zjednoczone District Courts; State and County Courts
Sila robocza 153.1 million (includes unemployed) (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki farming, forestry, and fishing 0.6%, manufacturing, extraction, transportation, and crafts 22.6%, managerial, professional, and technical 35.5%, sales and office 24.8%, other services 16.5%

note: figures exclude the unemployed (2007)
Granica total: 12,034 km

border countries: Kanada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km z Alaska), Meksyk 3,141 km

note: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Kuba is leased by the US and is part of Kuba; the base boundary is 28 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 18.01%

permanent crops: 0.21%

other: 81.78% (2005)
Jezyki English 82.1%, Spanish 10.7%, other Indo-European 3.8%, Asian and Pacific island 2.7%, other 0.7% (2000 census)

note: Hawaiian is an official language w the state of Hawaii
System prawny federal court system based on English common law; each state has its own unique legal system, of which all but one (Louisiana, which is still influenced by the Napoleonic Code) is based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Congress consists of the Senate (100 seats, 2 members are elected from each state by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third are elected every two years) and the House of Representatives (435 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 7 listopad 2006 (next to be held listopad 2008); House of Representatives - last held 7 listopad 2006 (next to be held listopad 2008)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 49, Republican Party 49, independent 2; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 233, Republican Party 202
Zywotnosc total population: 78 years

male: 75.15 years

female: 80.97 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja North America, bordering both the North Ocean Atlantycki and the North Ocean Spokojny, between Kanada and Meksyk
Lokalizacja na mapie North America
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: not specified
Flota handlowa total: 446 ships (1000 GRT or over) 10,308,428 GRT/12,616,742 DWT

by type: barge carrier 6, bulk carrier 64, cargo 82, carrier 2, chemical tanker 20, container 82, passenger 20, passenger/cargo 60, petroleum tanker 59, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 26, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 20

foreign-owned: 67 (Australia 2, Kanada 4, Dania 29, Niemcy 6, Malezja 4, Holandia 1, Norwegia 4, Singapur 11, Szwecja 5, UK 1)

registered w other countries: 785 (Antigua i Barbuda 8, Australia 5, Bahamas 162, Belize 3, Bermudy 23, Kambodza 6, Kanada 3, Kajmany 41, Komory 2, Cypr 8, Ekwador 1, Grecja 10, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 22, Irlandia 2, Wyspa Man 4, Wlochy 16, Liberia 103, South Korea 7, Luksemburg 3, Malta 11, Wyspy Marshalla 129, Holandia 13, Antyle Holenderskie 1, Norwegia 18, Panama 115, Peru 1, Portugalia 1, Portoryko 3, Rosja 1, Singapur 17, Hiszpania 9, St Vincent and The Grenadines 21, Szwecja 1, Trynidad i Tobago 1, Tuvalu 1, UK 11, Vanuatu 1, unknown 4) (2007)
Wojsko Army, Navy and Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard; note - Coast Guard administered w peacetime by the Department of Homeland Security, but w wartime reports to the Department of the Navy
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 4.06% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 4 lipiec (1776)
Narodowosc noun: American(s)

adjective: American
Naturalne zagrozenia tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic and Gulf of Meksyk coasts; tornadoes w the midwest and southeast; mud slides w California; forest fires w the west; flooding; permafrost w northern Alaska, a major impediment to development
Surowce naturalne coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber
Wspolczynnik migracji 3.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi petroleum products 244,620 km; natural gas 548,665 km (2006)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Democratic Party [Howard DEAN]; Green Party; Libertarian Party [William (Bill) REDPATH]; Republican Party [Robert M. (Mike) DUNCAN]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 301,139,947 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 12% (2004 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.894% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 4,789, FM 8,961, shortwave 19 (2006)
Linie kolejowe total: 226,612 km

standard gauge: 226,612 km 1.435-m gauge (2005)
Religie Protestant 51.3%, Roman Catholic 23.9%, Mormon 1.7%, other Christian 1.6%, Jewish 1.7%, Buddhist 0.7%, Muslim 0.6%, other or unspecified 2.5%, unaffiliated 12.1%, none 4% (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.046 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.996 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.721 male(s)/female

total population: 0.967 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: a large, technologically advanced, multipurpose communications system

domestic: a large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries every form of telephone traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone traffic throughout the country

international: country code - 1; multiple ocean cable systems provide international connectivity; satellite earth stations - 61 Intelsat (45 Ocean Atlantycki and 16 Ocean Spokojny), 5 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Atlantycki regions) (2000)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 172 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 233 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 2,218 (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu vast central plain, mountains w west, hills and low mountains w east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys w Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography w Hawaii
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.09 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 4.6% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 41,009 km (19,312 km used dla commerce)

note: Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared z Kanada (2007)
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