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Sri Lanka (2008)

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Sri Lanka 2008 roku

 Sri Lanka
Podzial administracyjny 8 provinces; Central, North Central, North Eastern, North Western, Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva, Western


note: w pazdziernik 2006, the Sri Lankan Supreme Court ruled voided a presidential directive merging the North and Eastern Provinces; many have defended the merger as a prerequisite dla a negotiated settlement to the ethnic conflict; a parliamentary decision on the issue is pending
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 24.3% (male 2,596,295/female 2,495,949)


15-64 years: 67.9% (male 6,947,310/female 7,259,271)


65 years and over: 7.8% (male 765,507/female 861,983) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseed, spices, tea, rubber, coconuts; milk, eggs, hides, beef; fish
Lotniska 18 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 14


over 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 6


914 to 1,523 m: 7 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 4


914 to 1,523 m: 1


under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Terytorium total: 65,610 sq km


land: 64,740 sq km


water: 870 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than West Virginia
Tlo historyczne The first Sinhalese arrived w Sri Lanka late w the 6th century B.C. probably from northern Indie. Buddhism was introduced w about the mid-third century B.C., and a great civilization developed at the cities of Anuradhapura (kingdom from circa 200 B.C. to circa A.D. 1000) and Polonnaruwa (from about 1070 to 1200). In the 14th century, a south Indien dynasty established a Tamil kingdom w northern Sri Lanka. The coastal areas of the island were controlled by the Portuguese w the 16th century and by the Dutch w the 17th century. The island was ceded to the British w 1796, became a crown colony w 1802, and was united under British rule by 1815. As Ceylon, it became independent w 1948; its name was changed to Sri Lanka w 1972. Tensions between the Sinhalese majority and Tamil separatists erupted into war w 1983. Tens of thousands have died w the ethnic conflict that continues to fester. After two decades of fighting, the government and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) formalized a cease-fire w luty 2002 z Norwegia brokering peace negotiations. Violence between the LTTE and government forces intensified w 2006 and the government regained control of the Eastern Province w 2007. In styczen 2008, the government officially withdrew from the ceasefire, and has begun engaging the LTTE w the northern portion of the country.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 17 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $5.379 billion


expenditures: $7.611 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Colombo


geographic coordinates: 6 56 N, 79 51 E


time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


note: Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (legislative capital)
Klimat tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (grudzien to marzec); southwest monsoon (czerwiec to pazdziernik)
Linia brzegowa 1,340 km
Konstytucja adopted 16 sierpien 1978, certified 31 sierpien 1978
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka


conventional short form: Sri Lanka


local long form: Shri Lamka Prajatantrika Samajaya di Janarajaya/Ilankai Jananayaka Choshalichak Kutiyarachu


local short form: Shri Lamka/Ilankai


former: Serendib, Ceylon
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.01 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $13.52 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Robert O. BLAKE, Jr.


embassy: 210 Galle Road, Colombo 3


mailing address: P. O. Box 106, Colombo


telephone: [94] (11) 249-8500


FAX: [94] (11) 243-7345
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Bernard GOONETILLEKE



chancery: 2148 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 483-4025 (through 4028)


FAX: [1] (202) 232-7181


consulate(s) general: Los Angeles


consulate(s): New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje none
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $1.189 billion (2005)
Ekonomia In 1977, Colombo abandoned statist economic policies and its import substitution trade policy dla more market-oriented policies, export-oriented trade, and encouragement of foreign investment. Recent changes w government, however, have brought some policy reversals. Currently, the ruling Sri Lanka Freedom Party has a more statist economic approach, which seeks to reduce poverty by steering investment to disadvantaged areas, developing small and medium enterprises, promoting agriculture, and expanding the already enormous civil service. The government has halted privatizations. Although suffering a brutal civil war that began w 1983, Sri Lanka saw Produkt krajowy brutto growth average 4.5% w the last 10 years z the exception of a recession w 2001. In late grudzien 2004, a major tsunami took about 31,000 lives, left more than 6,300 missing and 443,000 displaced, and destroyed an estimated $1.5 billion worth of property. Government spending and reconstruction drove growth to more than 7% w 2006 but reduced agriculture output probably slowed growth to about 6 percent w 2007. Government spending and lose monetary policy drove inflation to 16% w 2007. Sri Lanka's most dynamic sectors now are food processing, textiles and apparel, food and beverages, port construction, telecommunications, and insurance and banking. In 2006, plantation crops made up only about 15% of exports (compared z more than 90% w 1970), while textiles and garments accounted dla more than 60%. About 800,000 Sri Lankans work abroad, 90% of them w the Middle East. They send home more than $1 billion a year. The struggle by the Tamil Tigers of the north and east dla an independent homeland continues to cast a shadow over the economy.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 7.072 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 8.411 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Indyjski 0 m


highest point: Pidurutalagala 2,524 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by poaching and urbanization; coastal degradation from mining activities and increased pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff; waste disposal; air pollution w Colombo
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne Sinhalese 73.8%, Sri Lankan Moors 7.2%, Indien Tamil 4.6%, Sri Lankan Tamil 3.9%, other 0.5%, unspecified 10% (2001 census provisional data)
Kurs waluty Sri Lankan rupees per US dollar - 110.78 (2007), 103.99 (2006), 100.498 (2005), 101.194 (2004), 96.521 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Mahinda RAJAPAKSA (since 19 listopad 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; Ratnasiri WICKREMANAYAKE (since 21 listopad 2005) holds the largely ceremonial title of prime minister


head of government: President Mahinda RAJAPAKSA (since 19 listopad 2005)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president w consultation z the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a six-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held on 17 listopad 2005 (next to be held w 2011)


election results: Mahinda RAJAPAKSA elected president; percent of vote - Mahinda RAJAPAKSA 50.3%, Ranil WICKREMESINGHE 48.4%, other 1.3%
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $8.357 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 691.5 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary textiles and apparel, tea and spices; diamonds, emeralds, rubies; coconut products, rubber manufactures, fish
Eksport - partnerzy US 27.6%, UK 11.3%, Indie 9.3%, Belgia 4.7%, Niemcy 4.3% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi yellow z two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other panel is a large dark red rectangle z a yellow lion holding a sword, and there is a yellow bo leaf w each corner; the yellow field appears as a border around the entire flag and extends between the two panels
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 16.3%


industry: 27%


services: 56.6% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 7 00 N, 81 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location near major Ocean Indyjski sea lanes
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1.1%


highest 10%: 39.7% (FY03/04)
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $10.68 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 82,390 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary textile fabrics, mineral products, petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and transportation equipment
Import - partnerzy Indie 19.5%, Chiny 10.4%, Singapur 8.7%, Iran 5.6%, Malezja 5%, Hong Kong 4.2%, Japonia 4% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 4 luty 1948 (from UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 6.4% (2007 est.)
Przemysl processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, tobacco and other agricultural commodities; telecommunications, insurance, banking; clothing, textiles; cement, petroleum refining
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 19.45 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 21.2 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 17.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 15.6% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, BIMSTEC, C, CP, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 7,430 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court; Court of Appeals; judges dla both courts are appointed by the president
Sila robocza 7.67 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 34.3%


industry: 25.3%


services: 40.4% (30 czerwiec 2006 est.)
Granica 0 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 13.96%


permanent crops: 15.24%


other: 70.8% (2005)
Jezyki Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national language) 18%, other 8%


note: English is commonly used w government and is spoken competently by about 10% of the population
System prawny a highly complex mixture of English common law, Roman-Dutch, Kandyan, and Jaffna Tamil law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Parliament (225 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of an open-list, proportional representation system by electoral district to serve six-year terms)


elections: last held on 2 kwiecien 2004 (next to be held by 2010)


election results: percent of vote by party or electoral alliance - SLFP and JVP (no longer w formal UPFA alliance) 45.6%, UNP 37.8%, TNA 6.8%, JHU 6%, SLMC 2%, UPF 0.5%, EPDP 0.3%, other 1%; seats by party - UNP 68, SLFP 57, JVP 39, TNA 22, CWC 8, JHU 7, SLMC 6, SLMC dissidents 4, Communist Party 2, JHU dissidents 2, LSSP 2, MEP 2, NUA 2, UPF 2, EPDP 1, UNP dissident 1
Zywotnosc total population: 74.8 years


male: 72.81 years


female: 76.88 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 90.7%


male: 92.3%


female: 89.1% (2001 census)
Lokalizacja Southern Asia, island w the Ocean Indyjski, south of Indie
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 24 ships (1000 GRT or over) 162,280 GRT/227,478 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 18, container 2, petroleum tanker 2


foreign-owned: 6 (Niemcy 6)


registered w other countries: 3 (Panama 3) (2007)
Wojsko Sri Lankan Army, Sri Lankan Navy, Sri Lankan Air Force (2006)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.6% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 4 luty (1948)
Narodowosc noun: Sri Lankan(s)


adjective: Sri Lankan
Naturalne zagrozenia occasional cyclones and tornadoes
Surowce naturalne limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphates, clay, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji -1.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy All Ceylon Tamil Congress or ACTC [G.PONNAMBALAM]; Ceylon Workers Congress or CWC [Arumugam THONDAMAN]; Communist Party or CP [D. GUNASEKERA]; Eelam People's Democratic Party or EPDP [Douglas DEVANANDA]; Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front or EPRLF [Suresh PREMACHANDRAN]; Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna or JVP [Somawansa AMARASINGHE]; Lanka Sama Samaja Party or LSSP [Tissa VITHARANA]; Mahajana Eksath Peramuna (People's United Front) or MEP [D. GUNAWARDENE]; National Heritage Party or JHU [Ellawala METHANANDA]; National Unity Alliance or NUA [Ferial ASHRAFF]; People's Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam or PLOTE [D. SIDHARTHAN]; Sri Lanka Freedom Party or SLFP [Mahinda RAJAPAKSA]; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress or SLMC [Rauff HAKEEM]; Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization or TELO [Selvam ADAIKALANATHAN]; Tamil National Alliance or TNA [R. SAMPANTHAN]; Tamil United Liberation Front or TULF [V. ANANDASANGAREE]; United National Party or UNP [Ranil WICKREMASINGHE]; Up-country People's Front or UPF [P. CHANDRASEKARAN]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Buddhist clergy; labor unions; Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam or LTTE [Velupillai PRABHAKARAN](insurgent group fighting dla a separate state); radical chauvinist Sinhalese groups such as the National Movement Against Terrorism; Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups; Tamil Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (TMVP) or "Karuna group" [Vinayagamurthi MURALITHARAN] (paramilitary breakaway from LTTE and fighting LTTE)
Ludnosc 20,926,315


note: since the outbreak of hostilities between the government and armed Tamil separatists w the mid-1980s, several hundred thousand Tamil civilians have fled the island and more than 200,000 Tamils have sought refuge w the West (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 22% (2002 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.982% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 15, FM 52, shortwave 4 (2007)
Linie kolejowe total: 1,449 km


broad gauge: 1,449 km 1.676-m gauge (2006)
Religie Buddhist 69.1%, Muslim 7.6%, Hindu 7.1%, Christian 6.2%, unspecified 10% (2001 census provisional data)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.957 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.888 male(s)/female


total population: 0.971 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: telephone services have improved significantly and are available w most parts of the country


domestic: national trunk network consists mostly of digital microwave radio relay; fiber-optic links now w use w Colombo area and 2 fixed wireless local loops have been installed; competition is strong w mobile cellular systems and mobile cellular subscribership is increasing; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density is about 50 per 100 inhabitants


international: country code - 94; the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, Australia, Middle East, Europe, US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 2.742 million (2007)
Telefony komorkowe 7.983 million (2007)
Stacje telewizyjne 14 (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains w south-central interior
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.05 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 6.3% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 160 km (primarily on rivers w southwest) (2006)
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