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Slovenia (2007)

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Slovenia 2007 year

Administrative divisions 182 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities* (mestne obcine , singular - mestna obcina ) Ajdovscina, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Celje*, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Horjul-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik-Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos-Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola-Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Koper-Capodistria*, Kostel, Kozje, Kranj*, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava-Lendva, Litija, Ljubljana*, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Maribor*, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Murska Sobota*, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Nova Gorica*, Novo Mesto*, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran-Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Ptuj*, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogasovci, Rogaska Slatina, Rogatec, Ruse, Salovci, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenj Gradec*, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sostanj, Starse, Store, Sveta Ana, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velenje*, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zuzemberk, Zrece

note: there may be 45 more municipalities
Age structure 0-14 years: 13.7% (male 141,670/female 133,720)

15-64 years: 70.3% (male 712,409/female 700,844)

65 years and over: 16% (male 124,264/female 196,338) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry
Airports 14 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 6

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Area total: 20,273 sq km

land: 20,151 sq km

water: 122 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than New Jersey
Background The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though Communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
Birth rate 9 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $16.27 billion

expenditures: $16.59 billion (2006 est.)
Capital name: Ljubljana

geographic coordinates: 46 03 N, 14 31 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Climate Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Coastline 46.6 km
Constitution adopted 23 December 1991
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia

conventional short form: Slovenia

local long form: Republika Slovenija

local short form: Slovenija

former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia
Death rate 10.41 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $21.41 billion (2006 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Maryruth COLEMAN

embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana

mailing address: American Embassy Ljubljana, US Department of State, 7140 Ljubljana Place, Washington, DC 20521-7140

telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500

FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Samuel ZBOGAR

chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 667-5363

FAX: [1] (202) 667-4563

consulate(s) general: Cleveland, New York
Disputes - international the Croatia-Slovenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Piran Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to Croatia, remains unratified and in dispute; Slovenia also protests Croatia's 2003 claim to an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia must implement the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia
Economic aid - recipient ODA, $484 million (2004-06)

note: in March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank (2004-06)
Economy - overview With a GDP per capita substantially greater than the other transitioning economies of Central Europe, Slovenia is a model of economic success and stability for its neighbors from the former Yugoslavia. The country, which joined the EU in May 2004 and joined the eurozone on 1 January 2007, has excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and an excellent central location. Privatization of the economy proceeded at an accelerated pace in 2002-05. Despite lackluster economic performance in Europe in 2001-05, Slovenia maintained moderate growth. Structural reforms to improve the business environment have allowed for greater foreign participation in Slovenia's economy and have helped to lower unemployment. In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. Despite its economic success, Slovenia faces growing challenges. Much of the economy remains in state hands and foreign direct investment (FDI) in Slovenia is one of the lowest in the EU on a per capita basis. Although tax reforms were implemented in December 2006, taxes are still relatively high. The labor market is often seen as inflexible, and legacy industries are losing sales to more competitive firms in China, India, and elsewhere. The current center-right government, elected in October 2004, has pledged to accelerate privatization of a number of large state holdings and is interested in increasing FDI in Slovenia. In late 2005, the government's new Committee for Economic Reforms was elevated to cabinet-level status. The Committee's program includes plans for lowering the tax burden, privatizing state-controlled firms, improving the flexibility of the labor market, and increasing the government's efficiency.
Electricity - consumption 13.71 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - exports 4.8 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - imports 4.07 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - production 14.9 billion kWh (2006)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Triglav 2,864 m
Environment - current issues Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)
Exchange rates tolars per US dollar - 190.85 (2006), 192.71 (2005), 192.38 (2004), 207.11 (2003), 240.25 (2002)

note: Slovenia adopted the euro as its currency on 1 January 2007
Executive branch chief of state: President Janez DRNOVSEK (since 22 December 2002)

head of government: Prime Minister Janez JANSA (since 9 November 2004)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 21 October and 11 November 2007 (next to be held in the fall of 2012); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 9 November 2004 (next National Assembly elections to be held in October 2008)

election results: Danilo TURK elected president; percent of vote - Danilo TURK 68.2%, Lajze PETERLE 31.8%; Janez JANSA elected prime minister by National Assembly vote - 57 to 27 in 2004; called for vote of confidence 19 November 2007; TURK will be sworn in in December 2007
Exports 4.8 billion kWh (2006)
Exports $21.39 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food
Exports - partners Germany 20.1%, Italy 13%, Croatia 9.1%, Austria 8.8%, France 6.5%, Russia 4.4% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, with the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries); the seal is in the upper hoist side of the flag centered in the white and blue bands
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2.3%

industry: 34.5%

services: 63.2% (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.2% (2006 est.)
Geographic coordinates 46 07 N, 14 49 E
Geography - note despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 21.4% (1998)
Illicit drugs minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals
Imports 4.07 billion kWh (2006)
Imports $22.79 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports 1.073 billion cu m (2005)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food
Imports - partners Germany 19.7%, Italy 18.1%, Austria 11.9%, France 6%, Croatia 4.7% (2006)
Independence 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
Industrial production growth rate 5.6% (2006)
Industries ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
Infant mortality rate total: 4.35 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.93 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.5% (2006 est.)
International organization participation ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Irrigated land 30 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president)
Labor force 911,000 (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 4.8%

industry: 39.1%

services: 56.1% (2004)
Land boundaries total: 1,382 km

border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 670 km, Hungary 102 km, Italy 280 km
Land use arable land: 8.53%

permanent crops: 1.43%

other: 90.04% (2005)
Languages Slovenian 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4% (2002 census)
Legal system based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of a National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 40 members are directly elected and 50 are elected on a proportional basis; note - the number of directly elected and proportionally elected seats varies with each election; the constitution mandates 1 seat each for Slovenia's Hungarian and Italian minorities; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the National Council or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve five-year terms; note - this is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers; it may propose laws, ask to review any National Assembly decision, and call national referenda)

elections: National Assembly - last held 3 October 2004 (next to be held in October 2008)

election results: percent of vote by party - SDS 29.1%, LDS 22.8%, ZLSD 10.2%, NSi 9%, SLS 6.8%, SNS 6.3%, DeSUS 4.1%, other 11.7%; seats by party - SDS 29, LDS 23, ZLSD 10, NSi 9, SLS 7, SNS 6, DeSUS 4, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.53 years

male: 72.84 years

female: 80.47 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: NA

total population: 99.7%

male: 99.7%

female: 99.6%
Location Central Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia
Map references Europe
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm
Merchant marine registered in other countries: 26 (Antigua and Barbuda 6, Bahamas 1, Cyprus 4, Georgia 2, Liberia 1, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 3, Singapore 1, St Vincent and The Grenadines 5) (2007)
Military branches Slovenian Army (includes air and naval forces)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.7% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
Nationality noun: Slovene(s)

adjective: Slovenian
Natural hazards flooding and earthquakes
Natural resources lignite coal, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests
Net migration rate 0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 2,526 km; oil 11 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Jelko KACIN]; New Slovenia or NSi [Andrej BAJUK]; Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]; Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC]; Slovene People's Party or SLS [Janez PODOBNIK]; Slovene Youth Party or SMS [Darko KRANJC]; Social Democrats or SD [Borut PAHOR] (formerly ZLSD)
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 2,009,245 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 12.9% (2004)
Population growth rate -0.065% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 10, FM 230, shortwave 0 (2006)
Railways total: 1,229 km

standard gauge: 1,229 km 1.435-m gauge (504 km electrified) (2006)
Religions Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 0.9%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1% (2002 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.059 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.017 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.633 male(s)/female

total population: 0.949 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)
Telephone system general assessment: NA

domestic: 100% digital (2000)

international: country code - 386
Telephones - main lines in use 837,500 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1.82 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 31 (2006)
Terrain a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
Total fertility rate 1.26 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 9.6% (2006 est.)
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