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Sierra Leone (2003)

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Sierra Leone 2003 year

 Sierra Leone
Administrative divisions 3 provinces and 1 area*; Eastern, Northern, Southern, Western*
Age structure 0-14 years: 44.8% (male 1,259,421; female 1,310,516)

15-64 years: 52% (male 1,420,900; female 1,557,597)

65 years and over: 3.2% (male 89,078; female 95,169) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, coffee, cocoa, palm kernels, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish
Airports 10 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 9

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Area total: 71,740 sq km

land: 71,620 sq km

water: 120 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than South Carolina
Background Since 1991, civil war between the government and the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) has resulted in tens of thousands of deaths and the displacement of more than 2 million people (well over one-third of the population), many of whom are now refugees in neighboring countries. After several setbacks, the end to the 11-year conflict in Sierra Leone may finally be near at hand. With the support of the UN peacekeeping force and contributions from the World Bank and international community, demobilization and disarmament of the RUF and Civil Defense Forces (CDF) combatants has been completed. National elections were held in May 2002 and the government continues to slowly reestablish its authority.
Birth rate 43.89 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $96 million

expenditures: $351 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Freetown
Climate tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry season (December to April)
Coastline 402 km
Constitution 1 October 1991; subsequently amended several times
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Sierra Leone

conventional short form: Sierra Leone
Currency leone (SLL)
Death rate 20.66 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $1.5 billion (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Peter Russell CHAVEAS

embassy: Corner of Walpole and Siaka Stevens Streets, Freetown

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [232] (22) 226481 through 226485

FAX: [232] (22) 225471
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ibrahim M. KAMARA

chancery: 1701 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 939-9261 through 9263

FAX: [1] (202) 483-1793
Disputes - international large UN peacekeeping presence ended civil war but rebel gang fighting, ethnic rivalries, illegal diamond trading, corruption, and refugees spill over into neighboring states beset with their own civil disorder, refugees, and violence
Economic aid - recipient $103 million (2001 est.)
Economy - overview Sierra Leone is an extremely poor African nation with tremendous inequality in income distribution. It does have substantial mineral, agricultural, and fishery resources. However, the economic and social infrastructure is not well developed, and serious social disorders continue to hamper economic development, following a 11-year civil war. About two-thirds of the working-age population engages in subsistence agriculture. Manufacturing consists mainly of the processing of raw materials and of light manufacturing for the domestic market. Plans continue to reopen bauxite and rutile mines shut down during the conflict. The major source of hard currency consists of the mining of diamonds. The fate of the economy depends upon the maintenance of domestic peace and the continued receipt of substantial aid from abroad, which is essential to offset the severe trade imbalance and to supplement government revenues.
Electricity - consumption 232.6 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 250.1 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Loma Mansa (Bintimani) 1,948 m
Environment - current issues rapid population growth pressuring the environment; overharvesting of timber, expansion of cattle grazing, and slash-and-burn agriculture have resulted in deforestation and soil exhaustion; civil war depleting natural resources; overfishing
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Ethnic groups 20 native African tribes 90% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%, other 30%), Creole (Krio) 10% (descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area in the late-18th century), refugees from Liberia's recent civil war, small numbers of Europeans, Lebanese, Pakistanis, and Indians
Exchange rates leones per US dollar - 2,099.03 (2002), 1,986.15 (2001), 2,092.12 (2000), 1,804.19 (1999), 1,563.62 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (since 29 March 1996, reinstated 10 March 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (since 29 March 1996, reinstated 10 March 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president with the approval of the House of Representatives; the cabinet is responsible to the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2007); note - president's tenure of office is limited to two five-year terms

election results: Ahmad Tejan KABBAH reelected president; percent of vote - Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (SLPP) 70.6%, Ernest KOROMA (APC) 22.4%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $35 million f.o.b. (2000 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities diamonds, rutile, cocoa, coffee, fish (1999)
Exports - partners Belgium 41.9%, Germany 28.1%, UK 3.6% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of light green (top), white, and light blue
GDP purchasing power parity - $2.826 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 49%

industry: 31%

services: 21% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $500 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6.6% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 8 30 N, 11 30 W
Geography - note rainfall along the coast can reach 495 cm (195 inches) a year, making it one of the wettest places along coastal, western Africa
Heliports 2 (2002)
Highways total: 11,330 km

paved: 895 km

unpaved: 10,435 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 0.5%

highest 10%: 43.6% (1989)
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $190 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels and lubricants, chemicals (1995)
Imports - partners Germany 25%, UK 10.9%, Netherlands 7.5%, US 5.7%, Cote d'Ivoire 4.9%, Italy 4.3% (2002)
Independence 27 April 1961 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries mining (diamonds); small-scale manufacturing (beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear); petroleum refining
Infant mortality rate total: 146.86 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 164.23 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 128.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2001)
Irrigated land 290 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Appeals Court; High Court
Labor force 1.369 million (1981 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Land boundaries total: 958 km

border countries: Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km
Land use arable land: 6.76%

permanent crops: 0.78%

other: 92.46% (1998 est.)
Languages English (official, regular use limited to literate minority), Mende (principal vernacular in the south), Temne (principal vernacular in the north), Krio (English-based Creole, spoken by the descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area, a lingua franca and a first language for 10% of the population but understood by 95%)
Legal system based on English law and customary laws indigenous to local tribes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament (124 seats - 112 elected by popular vote, 12 filled by paramount chiefs elected in separate elections; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 14 May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - SLPP 70.06%, APC 22.35%, PLP 3%, others 4.59%; seats by party - SLPP 83, APC 27, PLP 2
Life expectancy at birth total population: 42.84 years

male: 40.33 years

female: 45.42 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write English, Mende, Temne, or Arabic

total population: 31.4%

male: 45.4%

female: 18.2% (1995 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Liberia
Map references Africa
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 7,435 GRT/8,750 DWT

ships by type: cargo 2
Military branches Army (RSLAF)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $10.26 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.5% (FY02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,228,664 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 596,617 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 27 April (1961)
Nationality noun: Sierra Leonean(s)

adjective: Sierra Leonean
Natural hazards dry, sand-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (December to February); sandstorms, dust storms
Natural resources diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold, chromite
Net migration rate 6.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population

note: refugees currently in surrounding countries are slowly returning (2003 est.)
Political parties and leaders All People's Congress or APC [Alhaji Sat KOROMA, interim chairman]; Citizens United for Peace and Progress or CUPP [Alfred Musa CONTEH, interim chairman]; Coalition for Progress Party or CPP [Jeridine WILLIAM-SARHO, interim leader]; Democratic Center Party or DCP [Adu Aiah KOROMA]; Democratic Labor Party or DLP [George E. L. PALMER]; Democratic Party or DP [Henry BALO, acting chairman]; National Alliance Democratic Party or NADP [Mohamed Yahya SILLAH, chairman]; National Democratic Alliance or NDA [Amadu M. B. JALLOH]; National People's Party or NPP [Andrew TURAY]; National Republican Party or NRP [Stephen Sahr MAMBU]; National Unity Movement or NUM [Sam LEIGH, interim chairman]; National Unity Party or NUP [John BENJAMINE, interim leader]; Peace and Liberation Party or PLP [Darlington MORRISON, interim chairman]; People's Democratic Alliance or PDA [Cpl. (Ret.) Abdul Rahman KAMARA, interim chairman]; People's Democratic Party or PDP [Osman KAMARA]; People's National Convention or PNC [Edward John KARGBO]; People's Progressive Party or PPP [Abass Chernok BUNDU, chairman]; Revolutionary United Front Party or RUFP [Foday Saybana SANKOH, chairman]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Andrew Victor LUNGAY]; Sierra Leone People's Party or SLPP [Ahmad Tejan KABBAH, chairman]; United National People's Party or UNPP [John KAREFA-SMART in exile, Raymond KAMARA, acting leader]; Young People's Party or YPP [Cornelius DEVEAUS, interim chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders Trade Unions and Student Unions
Population 5,732,681 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 68% (1989 est.)
Population growth rate 2.94% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Bonthe, Freetown, Pepel
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 9, shortwave 1 (1999)
Railways total: 84 km

narrow gauge: 84 km 1.067-m gauge

note: Sierra Leone has no common carrier railroads; the existing railroad is private and used on a limited basis while the mine at Marampa is closed (2001)
Religions Muslim 60%, indigenous beliefs 30%, Christian 10%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: marginal telephone and telegraph service

domestic: the national microwave radio relay trunk system connects Freetown to Bo and Kenema

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 25,000 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 30,000 (2001)
Television broadcast stations 2 (1999)
Terrain coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland plateau, mountains in east
Total fertility rate 5.86 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways 800 km (of which 600 km is navigable year round)
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