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Serbia and Montenegro (2003)

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 Serbia and Montenegro
Administrative divisions 2 republics (republike, singular - republika); and 2 nominally autonomous provinces* (autonomn pokrajine, singular - autonomna pokrajina); Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*
Age structure 0-14 years: 19.3% (male 1,062,625; female 990,071)

15-64 years: 65.4% (male 3,422,543; female 3,548,058)

65 years and over: 15.3% (male 696,716; female 935,761) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep, goats
Airports 45 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 19

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 4 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 26

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 12 (2002)
Area total: 102,350 sq km

land: 102,136 sq km

water: 214 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Kentucky
Background The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Occupation by Nazi Germany in 1941 was resisted by various paramilitary bands that fought themselves as well as the invaders. The group headed by Marshal TITO took full control upon German expulsion in 1945. Although Communist, his new government successfully steered its own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In the early 1990s, post-TITO Yugoslavia began to unravel along ethnic lines: Slovenia, Croatia, and The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia all declared their independence in 1991; Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (FRY) in 1992 and, under President Slobodan MILOSEVIC, Serbia led various military intervention efforts to unite Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." All of these efforts were ultimately unsuccessful. In 1999, massive expulsions by FRY forces and Serb paramilitaries of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo provoked an international response, including the NATO bombing of Serbia and the stationing of NATO, Russian, and other peacekeepers in Kosovo. Federal elections in the fall of 2000, brought about the ouster of MILOSEVIC and installed Vojislav KOSTUNICA as president. The arrest of MILOSEVIC in 2001 allowed for his subsequent transfer to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague to be tried for crimes against humanity. In 2001, the country's suspension was lifted, and it was once more accepted into UN organizations under the name of Yugoslavia. Kosovo has been governed by the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) since June 1999, under the authority of UN Security Council Resolution 1244. In 2002, the Serbian and Montenegrin components of Yugoslavia began negotiations to forge a looser relationship. These talks became a reality in February 2003 when lawmakers restructured the country into a loose federation of two republics called Serbia and Montenegro. An agreement was also reached to hold a referendum in each republic in three years on full independence.
Birth rate 12.74 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $3.9 billion

expenditures: $4.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Capital Belgrade; note - Podgorica is the judicial capital
Climate in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland
Coastline 199 km
Constitution 4 February 2003
Country name conventional long form: Serbia and Montenegro

conventional short form: none

local long form: Srbija i Crna Gora

local short form: none
Currency new Yugoslav dinar (YUM); note - in Montenegro the euro is legal tender; in Kosovo both the euro and the Yugoslav dinar are legal (2002)
Death rate 10.62 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $9.2 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador William D. MONTGOMERY

embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade

mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070

telephone: [381] (11) 361-9344

FAX: [381] (11) 361-8230
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ivan VUJACIC

chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333

FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933

consulate(s) general: Chicago
Disputes - international the Albanian government calls for the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside its borders in the Kosovo region of Serbia and Montenegro while continuing to seek regional cooperation; several ethnic Albanian groups in Kosovo voice union with Albania; has delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute; in late 2002, Serbia and Montenegro and Croatia adopted an interim agreement to settle the disputed Prevlaka Peninsula, allowing the withdrawal of the UN monitoring mission (UNMOP), but discussions could be complicated by the inability of Serbia and Montenegro to come to an agreement on the economic aspects of the new federal union
Economic aid - recipient $2 billion pledged in 2001 (disbursements to follow for several years)
Economy - overview MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the war in Kosovo have left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. Since the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in October 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government has implemented stabilization measures and embarked on an aggressive market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000, Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). A World Bank-European Commission sponsored Donors' Conference held in June 2001 raised $1.3 billion for economic restructuring. An agreement rescheduling the country's $4.5 billion Paris Club government debts was concluded in November 2001; it will write off 66% of the debt; a similar debt relief agreement on its $2.8 billion London Club commercial debt is still pending. The smaller republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and continues to maintain its own central bank, uses the euro instead of the Yugoslav dinar as official currency, collects customs tariffs, and manages its own budget. Kosovo, while technically still part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (now Serbia and Montenegro) according to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, is moving toward local autonomy under United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and is dependent on the international community for financial and technical assistance. The euro and the Yugoslav dinar are official currencies, and UNMIK collects taxes and manages the budget. The complexity of Serbia and Montenegro political relationships, slow progress in privatization, and stagnation in the European economy are holding back the economy. Arrangements with the IMF, especially requirements for fiscal discipline, are an important element in policy formation. Severe unemployment remains a key political economic problem.
Electricity - consumption 32.37 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 446 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 3.33 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 31.71 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 62.9%

hydro: 37.1%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Daravica 2,656 m
Environment - current issues pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity
Ethnic groups Serb 62.6%, Albanian 16.5%, Montenegrin 5%, Hungarian 3.3%, other 12.6% (1991)
Exchange rates new Yugoslav dinars per US dollar - official rate: 65 (2002), 10.0 (December 1998); black market rate: 14.5 (December 1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Svetozar MAROVIC (since 7 March 2003)

head of government: Prime Minister Dragisa PESIC (since 24 July 2001); Deputy Prime Minister Miroljub LABUS (since 25 January 2001)

cabinet: Federal Ministries act as Cabinet

elections: president elected by the Parliament for a four-year term; election last held 7 March 2003 (next to be held NA 2007); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Svetozar MAROVIC elected president by the Parliament; vote was Svetozar MAROVIC 65, other 47
Exports 446 million kWh (2001)
Exports $2.4 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials
Exports - partners Italy 32%, Germany 19.5%, Greece 7%, Austria 6.1%, France 4.6% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red
GDP purchasing power parity - $23.15 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 26%

industry: 36%

services: 38% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,200 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 44 00 N, 21 00 E
Geography - note controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast
Heliports 4 (2002)
Highways total: 49,805 km

paved: 31,029 km (including 560 km of expressways)

unpaved: 18,776 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering
Imports 3.33 billion kWh (2001)
Imports $6.3 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
Imports - partners Germany 19.4%, Italy 18%, Austria 8.5%, Slovenia 5.6%, Greece 4.4%, France 4.3%, Bulgaria 4.2%, Romania 4.1% (2002)
Independence 27 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or FRY formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or SFRY)
Industrial production growth rate 1.7% (2002 est.)
Industries machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone); consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances); electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals
Infant mortality rate total: 16.9 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 18.57 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 15.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 19% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, BIS, CE (guest), CEI, EBRD, FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISET, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 9 (2000)
Irrigated land 570 sq km
Judicial branch Federal Court or Savezni Sud; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts are elected by the Federal Assembly for nine-year terms

note: after the promulgation of the new Constitution, the Federal Court will have constitutional and administrative functions; it will have an equal number of judges from each republic
Labor force 3 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Land boundaries total: 2,246 km

border countries: Albania 287 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 241 km, Croatia (south) 25 km, Hungary 151 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km
Land use arable land: 36.34%

permanent crops: 3.44%

other: 60.22% (1998 est.)
Languages Serbian 95%, Albanian 5%
Legal system based on civil law system
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament (126 seats - 91 Serbian, 35 Montenegrin - filled by nominees of the two state parliaments for the first two years, after which the president will call for public elections

elections: last held 25 February 2003 (next to be held NA 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - DOS 37, DLECG 19, DSS 17, ZP 14, SPS 12, SRS 8, SDP 5, SSJ 5, other 9
Life expectancy at birth total population: 73.97 years

male: 71.03 years

female: 77.16 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93%

male: 97.2%

female: 88.9% (1991)
Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Map references Europe
Maritime claims NA
Military branches Army (VJ) (including ground forces with border troops, naval forces, air and air defense forces)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $654 million (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,579,620 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,077,660 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 81,547 (2003 est.)
National holiday National Day, 27 April
Nationality noun: Serb(s); Montenegrin(s)

adjective: Serbian; Montenegrin
Natural hazards destructive earthquakes
Natural resources oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome, hydropower, arable land
Net migration rate -1.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines gas 3,177 km; oil 393 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Opposition of Serbia or DOS (a coalition of many small parties including DSS) [leader NA]; Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Jozsef KASZA]; Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA, president]; Democratic List for European Montenegro or DLECG [Milo DJUKANOVIC, Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]; Democratic Party or DS [collective interim leadership led by Cedomir JOVANOVIC]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]; Party of Serb Unity or SSJ [Borislav PELEVIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Tomislav NIKOLIC]; Serbian Socialist Party or SPS (former Communist Party and party of Slobodan MILOSEVIC) [Zoran ANDJELKOVIC, general secretary]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Rasim LJAJIC]; Together for Changes or ZP [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders Alliance for the Future of Kosovo or AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]; Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Ibrahim RUGOVA]; Democratic Party of Kosovo or PDK [Hashim THACI]; Group of 17 Independent Economists or G-17 [leader NA]; National Movement for the Liberation of Kosovo or LKCK [Sabit GASHI]; Otpor Student Resistance Movement [leader NA]; Political Council for Presevo, Meveda and Bujanovac or PCPMB [leader NA]; The People's Movement for Kosovo or LPK [Emrush XHEMAJLI]
Population 10,655,774

note: a census was taken in Serbia 1-15 April 2002 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 30%
Population growth rate 0.07% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Bar, Belgrade, Kotor, Novi Sad, Pancevo, Tivat, Zelenika
Radio broadcast stations AM 113, FM 194, shortwave 2 (1998)
Railways total: 4,059 km

standard gauge: 4,059 km 1.435-m gauge (1,364 km electrified) (2002)
Religions Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Telephone system general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 2.017 million (1995)
Telephones - mobile cellular 87,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations more than 771 (including 86 strong stations and 685 low-power stations, plus 20 repeaters in the principal networks; also numerous local or private stations in Serbia and Vojvodina) (1997)
Terrain extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast
Total fertility rate 1.77 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 32% (2002 est.)
Waterways 587 km

note: the Danube River, central Europe's connection to the Black Sea, runs through Serbia; since early 2000, a pontoon bridge, replacing a destroyed conventional bridge, has obstructed river traffic at Novi Sad; the obstruction is bypassed by a canal system, but the inadequate lock size limits the size of vessels which may pass; the pontoon bridge can be opened for large ships but has slowed river traffic (2001)
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