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Saudi Arabia (2003)

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 Saudi Arabia
Administrative divisions 13 provinces (mintaqat, singular - mintaqah); Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah, Al Jawf, Al Madinah, Al Qasim, Ar Riyad, Ash Sharqiyah (Eastern Province), 'Asir, Ha'il, Jizan, Makkah, Najran, Tabuk
Age structure 0-14 years: 42.3% (male 5,245,413; female 5,028,595)

15-64 years: 54.8% (male 7,700,121; female 5,622,099)

65 years and over: 2.9% (male 393,173; female 304,443) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus; mutton, chickens, eggs, milk
Airports 209 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 71

over 3,047 m: 31

2,438 to 3,047 m: 12

1,524 to 2,437 m: 24

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 138

over 3047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 79

914 to 1,523 m: 39

under 914 m: 13 (2002)
Area total: 1,960,582 sq km

land: 1,960,582 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly more than one-fifth the size of the US
Background In 1902, ABD AL-AZIZ bin Abd al-Rahman Al Saud captured Riyadh and set out on a 30-year campaign to unify the Arabian Peninsula. In the 1930s, the discovery of oil transformed the country. Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, Saudi Arabia accepted the Kuwaiti royal family and 400,000 refugees while allowing Western and Arab troops to deploy on its soil for the liberation of Kuwait the following year. A burgeoning population, aquifer depletion, and an economy largely dependent on petroleum output and prices are all major governmental concerns.
Birth rate 37.2 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $46 billion

expenditures: $56.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2003 est.)
Capital Riyadh
Climate harsh, dry desert with great temperature extremes
Coastline 2,640 km
Constitution governed according to Shari'a (Islamic law); the Basic Law that articulates the government's rights and responsibilities was introduced in 1993
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

conventional short form: Saudi Arabia

local long form: Al Mamlakah al Arabiyah as Suudiyah

local short form: Al Arabiyah as Suudiyah
Currency Saudi riyal (SAR)
Death rate 5.79 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $25.9 billion (2003 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Robert W. JORDAN

embassy: Collector Road M, Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh

mailing address: American Embassy Riyadh, Unit 61307, APO AE 09803-1307; International Mail: P. O. Box 94309, Riyadh 11693

telephone: [966] (1) 488-3800

FAX: [966] (1) 488-7360

consulate(s) general: Dhahran, Jiddah (Jeddah)
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador BANDAR bin Sultan bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud

chancery: 601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 342-3800

consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
Disputes - international nomadic groups on border region with Yemen resist demarcation of boundary; Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have been negotiating a long-contested maritime boundary with Iran; because the treaties have not been made public, the exact alignment of the boundary with the UAE is still unknown and labeled approximate
Economic aid - donor pledged $100 million in 1993 to fund reconstruction of Lebanon; since 2000, Saudi Arabia has committed $307 million for assistance to the Palestinians; pledged $240 million to development in Afghanistan
Economy - overview This is an oil-based economy with strong government controls over major economic activities. Saudi Arabia has the largest reserves of petroleum in the world (26% of the proved reserves), ranks as the largest exporter of petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC. The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 75% of budget revenues, 45% of GDP, and 90% of export earnings. About 25% of GDP comes from the private sector. Roughly 4 million foreign workers play an important role in the Saudi economy, for example, in the oil and service sectors. The government in 1999 announced plans to begin privatizing the electricity companies, which follows the ongoing privatization of the telecommunications company. The government is supporting private sector growth to lessen the kingdom's dependence on oil and increase employment opportunities for the swelling Saudi population. Priorities for government spending in the short term include additional funds for the water and sewage systems and for education. Water shortages and rapid population growth constrain the government's efforts to increase self-sufficiency in agricultural products.
Electricity - consumption 113.8 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 122.4 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: Jabal Sawda' 3,133 m
Environment - current issues desertification; depletion of underground water resources; the lack of perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has prompted the development of extensive seawater desalination facilities; coastal pollution from oil spills
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%
Exchange rates Saudi riyals per US dollar - 3.75 (2002), 3.75 (2001), 3.75 (2000), 3.75 (1999), 3.75 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the monarch, heir to the throne since 13 June 1982, regent from 1 January to 22 February 1996); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the monarch, heir to the throne since 13 June 1982, regent from 1 January to 22 February 1996); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers is appointed by the monarch and includes many royal family members

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $71 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities petroleum and petroleum products 90%
Exports - partners US 18.6%, Japan 15.6%, South Korea 10.1%, Singapore 5.1%, China 4.6% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description green with large white Arabic script (that may be translated as There is no God but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God) above a white horizontal saber (the tip points to the hoist side); green is the traditional color of Islam
GDP purchasing power parity - $268.9 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 5.2%

industry: 51.2%

services: 43.6% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $11,400 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 25 00 N, 45 00 E
Geography - note extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal
Heliports 5 (2002)
Highways total: 151,470 km

paved: 45,592 km

unpaved: 105,878 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs death penalty for traffickers; increasing consumption of heroin, cocaine, and hashish
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $39.5 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, motor vehicles, textiles
Imports - partners US 11.2%, Japan 8.8%, Germany 7.6%, UK 4.9%, France 4.9%, Italy 4.1% (2002)
Independence 23 September 1932 (Unification of the Kingdom)
Industrial production growth rate 1% (1997 est.)
Industries crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals, cement, construction, fertilizer, plastics
Infant mortality rate total: 47.94 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 50.1 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 45.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BIS, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 22 (2003)
Irrigated land 16,200 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Council of Justice
Labor force 7 million

note: 35% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 12%, industry 25%, services 63% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 4,431 km

border countries: Iraq 814 km, Jordan 744 km, Kuwait 222 km, Oman 676 km, Qatar 60 km, UAE 457 km, Yemen 1,458 km
Land use arable land: 1.72%

permanent crops: 0.06%

other: 98.22% (1998 est.)
Languages Arabic
Legal system based on Islamic law, several secular codes have been introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (120 members and a chairman appointed by the monarch for four-year terms)
Life expectancy at birth total population: 68.73 years

male: 66.99 years

female: 70.55 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 78.8%

male: 84.7%

female: 70.8% (2003 est.)
Location Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen
Map references Middle East
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 18 NM

continental shelf: not specified

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,461,964 GRT/2,301,258 DWT

ships by type: cargo 9, chemical tanker 11, container 4, livestock carrier 2, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 23, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger 8

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Egypt 3, Finland 1, Greece 3, Kuwait 1, Sudan 1, UAE 1, UK 3 (2002 est.)
Military branches Land Force (Army), Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, National Guard, Ministry of Interior Forces (paramilitary)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $18.3 billion (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 13% (FY00)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 6,123,784 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 3,431,281 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 17 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 253,685 (2003 est.)
National holiday Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)
Nationality noun: Saudi(s)

adjective: Saudi or Saudi Arabian
Natural hazards frequent sand and dust storms
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper
Net migration rate 1.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines condensate 212 km; gas 837 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,187 km; oil 5,062 km; refined products 69 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders none allowed
Political pressure groups and leaders none
Population 24,293,844

note: includes 5,576,076 non-nationals (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 3.27% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Ad Dammam, Al Jubayl, Duba, Jiddah, Jizan, Rabigh, Ra's al Khafji, Mishab, Ras Tanura, Yanbu' al Bahr, Madinat Yanbu' al Sinaiyah
Radio broadcast stations AM 43, FM 31, shortwave 2 (1998)
Railways total: 1,392 km

standard gauge: 1,392 km 1.435-m gauge (with branch lines and sidings) (2002)
Religions Muslim 100%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.37 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.29 male(s)/female

total population: 1.22 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage none
Telephone system general assessment: modern system

domestic: extensive microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable systems

international: microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; submarine cable to Djibouti, Egypt and Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region)
Telephones - main lines in use 3.9 million (2002 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2.9 million (2002 est.)
Television broadcast stations 117 (1997)
Terrain mostly uninhabited, sandy desert
Total fertility rate 6.15 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 25% (2002)
Waterways none
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