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Sao Tome and Principe (2008)

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Sao Tome and Principe 2008 year

 Sao Tome and Principe
Administrative divisions 2 provinces; Principe, Sao Tome

note: Principe has had self government since 29 April 1995
Age structure 0-14 years: 47.3% (male 47,796/female 46,589)

15-64 years: 49% (male 47,386/female 50,412)

65 years and over: 3.7% (male 3,383/female 4,013) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, copra, cinnamon, pepper, coffee, bananas, papayas, beans; poultry; fish
Airports 2 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Area total: 1,001 sq km

land: 1,001 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative more than five times the size of Washington, DC
Background Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century, the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with plantation slave labor, a form of which lingered into the 20th century. While independence was achieved in 1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. The country held its first free elections in 1991, but frequent internal wrangling between the various political parties precipitated repeated changes in leadership and two failed coup attempts in 1995 and 2003. The recent discovery of oil in the Gulf of Guinea promises to attract increased attention to the small island nation.
Birth rate 39.72 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $74.11 million

expenditures: $57.71 million (2007 est.)
Capital name: Sao Tome

geographic coordinates: 0 12 N, 6 39 E

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)
Coastline 209 km
Constitution approved March 1990, effective 10 September 1990
Country name conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe

conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe

local long form: Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe

local short form: Sao Tome e Principe
Death rate 6.28 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $318 million (2002)
Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Sao Tome and Principe; the Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to the islands
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: First Secretary Domingos Augusto FERREIRA

chancery: 400 Park Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10022

telephone: [1] (212) 317-0580

FAX: [1] (212) 935-7348

consulate(s): Atlanta
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $31.9 million in December 2000 under the HIPC program (2005)
Economy - overview This small, poor island economy has become increasingly dependent on cocoa since independence in 1975. Cocoa production has substantially declined in recent years because of drought and mismanagement. Sao Tome has to import all fuels, most manufactured goods, consumer goods, and a substantial amount of food. Over the years, it has had difficulty servicing its external debt and has relied heavily on concessional aid and debt rescheduling. Sao Tome benefited from $200 million in debt relief in December 2000 under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program, which helped bring down the country's $300 million debt burden. In August 2005, Sao Tome signed on to a new 3-year IMF Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) program worth $4.3 million. Considerable potential exists for development of a tourist industry, and the government has taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. The government also has attempted to reduce price controls and subsidies. Sao Tome is optimistic about the development of petroleum resources in its territorial waters in the oil-rich Gulf of Guinea, which are being jointly developed in a 60-40 split with Nigeria. The first production licenses were sold in 2004, though a dispute over licensing with Nigeria delayed Sao Tome's receipt of more than $20 million in signing bonuses for almost a year. Real GDP growth exceeded 6% in 2007, as a result of increases in public expenditures and oil-related capital investment.
Electricity - consumption 16.74 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 18 million kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pico de Sao Tome 2,024 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)
Exchange rates dobras per US dollar - 13,700 (2007), 12,050 (2006), 9,900.4 (2005), 9,902.3 (2004), 9,347.6 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Fradique DE MENEZES (since 3 September 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Patrice TROVOADA (since 14 February 2008)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 30 July 2006 (next to be held July 2011); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president

election results: Fradique DE MENEZES elected president; percent of vote - Fradique DE MENEZES 60%, Patrice TROVOADA 38.5%
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $4 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 0 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities cocoa 80%, copra, coffee, palm oil
Exports - partners Netherlands 47.9%, Belgium 19%, Portugal 9.3% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width), and green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 14.8%

industry: 14.2%

services: 71% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6.5% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 1 00 N, 7 00 E
Geography - note the smallest country in Africa; the two main islands form part of a chain of extinct volcanoes and both are fairly mountainous
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $73 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 634.4 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery and electrical equipment, food products, petroleum products
Imports - partners Portugal 48.8%, France 19.7%, Belgium 5.1%, US 5.1% (2006)
Independence 12 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Industrial production growth rate 8.5% (2007 est.)
Industries light construction, textiles, soap, beer, fish processing, timber
Infant mortality rate total: 40.54 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 42.42 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 38.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 17% (2007 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Irrigated land 100 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the National Assembly)
Labor force 35,050 (1991)
Labor force - by occupation note: population mainly engaged in subsistence agriculture and fishing; shortages of skilled workers
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 8.33%

permanent crops: 48.96%

other: 42.71% (2005)
Languages Portuguese (official)
Legal system based on Portuguese legal system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (55 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 26 March 2006 (next to be held in March 2010)

election results: percent of vote by party - MDFM-PCD 37.2%, MLSTP 28.9%, ADI 20.0%, NR 4.7%, others 9.2%; seats by party - MDFM-PCD 23, MLSTP 19, ADI 12, NR 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 67.64 years

male: 66.03 years

female: 69.3 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 84.9%

male: 92.2%

female: 77.9% (2001 census)
Location Western Africa, islands in the Gulf of Guinea, straddling the Equator, west of Gabon
Map references Africa
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 7 ships (1000 GRT or over) 20,455 GRT/27,871 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 6

foreign-owned: 2 (Egypt 1, Greece 1) (2007)
Military - note Sao Tome and Principe's army is a tiny force with almost no resources at its disposal and would be wholly ineffective operating unilaterally; infantry equipment is considered simple to operate and maintain but may require refurbishment or replacement after 25 years in tropical climates; poor pay, working conditions, and alleged nepotism in the promotion of officers have been problems in the past, as reflected in the 1995 and 2003 coups; these issues are being addressed with foreign assistance aimed at improving the army and its focus on realistic security concerns; command is exercised from the president, through the Minister of Defense, to the Chief of the Armed Forces staff (2005)
Military branches Armed Forces of Sao Tome and Principe (FASTP): Army, Coast Guard of Sao Tome e Principe (Guarda Costeira de Sao Tome e Principe, GCSTP), Presidential Guard (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.8% (2006)
National holiday Independence Day, 12 July (1975)
Nationality noun: Sao Tomean(s)

adjective: Sao Tomean
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources fish, hydropower
Net migration rate -2.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders Force for Change Democratic Movement or MDFM [Tome Soares da VERA CRUZ]; Independent Democratic Action or ADI [[Patrice TROVOADA]; Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Rafael BRANCO]; New Way Movement or NR; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Delfim NEVES]; Ue-Kedadji coalition; other small parties
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 199,579 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 54% (2004 est.)
Population growth rate 3.13% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 1 (2001)
Religions Catholic 70.3%, Evangelical 3.4%, New Apostolic 2%, Adventist 1.8%, other 3.1%, none 19.4% (2001 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.026 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.843 male(s)/female

total population: 0.976 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: adequate facilities

domestic: minimal system

international: country code - 239; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 7,100 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 12,000 (2005)
Television broadcast stations 2 (2001)
Terrain volcanic, mountainous
Total fertility rate 5.53 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
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