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Sao Tome and Principe (2002)

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 Sao Tome and Principe
Administrative divisions 2 provinces; Principe, Sao Tome

note: Principe has had self-government since 29 April 1995
Age structure 0-14 years: 47.7% (male 41,159; female 40,125)

15-64 years: 48.3% (male 39,701; female 42,586)

65 years and over: 4% (male 3,115; female 3,686) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, copra, cinnamon, pepper, coffee, bananas, papayas, beans; poultry; fish
Airports 2 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Area total: 1,001 sq km

land: 1,001 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative more than five times the size of Washington, DC
Background Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century, the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with plantation slave labor, a form of which lingered into the 20th century. Although independence was achieved in 1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. The first free elections were held in 1991.
Birth rate 42.3 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $58 million

expenditures: $114 million, including capital expenditures of $54 million
Capital Sao Tome
Climate tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)
Coastline 209 km
Constitution approved March 1990; effective 10 September 1990
Country name conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe

conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe

local long form: Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe

local short form: Sao Tome e Principe
Currency dobra (STD)
Death rate 7.32 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $253.8 million (2000) (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Sao Tome and Principe; the Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to the islands
Diplomatic representation in the US Sao Tome and Principe does not have an embassy in the US, but does have a Permanent Mission to the UN, headed by First Secretary Domingos Augusto FERREIRA, located at 400 Park Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10022, telephone [1] (212) 317-0580
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $200 million in December 2000 under the HIPC program
Economy - overview This small poor island economy has become increasingly dependent on cocoa since independence 26 years ago. However, cocoa production has substantially declined because of drought and mismanagement. The resulting shortage of cocoa for export has created a persistent balance-of-payments problem. Sao Tome has to import all fuels, most manufactured goods, consumer goods, and a substantial amount of food. Over the years, it has been unable to service its external debt and has had to depend on concessional aid and debt rescheduling. Sao Tome benefited from $200 million in debt relief in December 2000 under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program. Sao Tome's success in implementing structural reforms has been rewarded by international donors, who have pledged increased assistance in 2001. Considerable potential exists for development of a tourist industry, and the government has taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. The government also has attempted to reduce price controls and subsidies. Sao Tome is also optimistic that substantial petroleum discoveries are forthcoming in its territorial waters in the oil-rich waters of the Gulf of Guinea. Corruption scandals continue to weaken the economy.
Electricity - consumption 15.81 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 17 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 41%

hydro: 59%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pico de Sao Tome 2,024 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)
Exchange rates dobras per US dollar - 9,009.1 (December 2001), 8,842.1 (2001), 7,978.2 (2000), 7,119.0 (1999), 6,883.2 (1998), 4,552.5 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President Fradique DE MENEZES (since 3 September 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Maria das NEVES (since 7 October 2002)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 July 2001 (next to be held NA July 2006); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president

election results: Fradique DE MENEZES elected president in Sao Tome's third multiparty presidential election; percent of vote - NA%
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $4.1 million f.o.b. (2000 est.)
Exports - commodities cocoa 90%, copra, coffee, palm oil
Exports - partners Portugal 33.3%, Netherlands 8.3%, Spain 8.3% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width), and green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP purchasing power parity - $189 million (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 25%

industry: 10%

services: 65% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,200 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 1 00 N, 7 00 E
Geography - note the smallest country in Africa; the two main islands form part of a chain of extinct volcanoes and both are fairly mountainous
Highways total: 320 km

paved: 218 km

unpaved: 102 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2000)
Imports $40 million f.o.b. (2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and electrical equipment, food products, petroleum products
Imports - partners Portugal 43%, France 15.7%, UK 13.7% (1999)
Independence 12 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries light construction, textiles, soap, beer; fish processing; timber
Infant mortality rate 47.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 7% (2001 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2002)
Irrigated land 100 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the National Assembly)
Labor force NA
Labor force - by occupation population mainly engaged in subsistence agriculture and fishing

note: shortages of skilled workers
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 2%

permanent crops: 41%

other: 57% (1998 est.)
Languages Portuguese (official)
Legal system based on Portuguese legal system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (55 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 3 March 2002 (next to be held NA March 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - MLSTP 39.6%, Force for Change Democratic Movement 39.4%, Ue-Kedadji coalition 16.2%; seats by party - MLSTP 24, Force for Change Democratic Movement 23, Ue-Kedadji coalition 8
Life expectancy at birth total population: 65.93 years

male: 64.47 years

female: 67.45 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 79.3%

male: 85%

female: 62% (1991 est.)
Location Western Africa, islands in the Gulf of Guinea, straddling the Equator, west of Gabon
Map references Africa
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 169,991 GRT/245,996 DWT

ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 23, chemical tanker 1, container 3, livestock carrier 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 2, specialized tanker 1

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Egypt 1, Greece 1, Kenya 1, Portugal 1, Syria 1, Turkey 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Security Police
Military expenditures - dollar figure $400,000 (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.8% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 35,524 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 18,727 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 12 July (1975)
Nationality noun: Sao Tomean(s)

adjective: Sao Tomean
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources fish, hydropower
Net migration rate -3.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Renovation Party [Armindo GRACA]; Force for Change Democratic Movement [leader NA]; Independent Democratic Action or ADI [Carlos NEVES]; Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Manuel Pinto Da COSTA]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Aldo BANDEIRA]; Ue-Kedadji coalition [leader NA]; other small parties
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 170,372 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 3.18% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Santo Antonio, Sao Tome
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 1 (2002)
Radios 38,000 (1997)
Railways 0 km
Religions Christian 80% (Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh-Day Adventist)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: adequate facilities

domestic: minimal system

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 4,600 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 6,942 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 2 (2002)
Terrain volcanic, mountainous
Total fertility rate 5.95 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways none
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