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Rosja 2008 roku

 Rosja
Podzial administracyjny 46 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast), 21 republics (respublik, singular - respublika), 4 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnykh okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy okrug), 9 krays (krayev, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (goroda, singular - gorod), and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast')


oblasts: Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl'


republics: Adygeya (Maykop), Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashiya (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (Magas), Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik), Kalmykiya (Elista), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk), Kareliya (Petrozavodsk), Khakasiya (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordoviya (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Sakha [Yakutiya] (Yakutsk), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tyva (Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (Izhevsk)


autonomous okrugs: Chukotka (Anadyr'), Khanty-Mansi (Khanty-Mansiysk), Nenets (Nar'yan-Mar), Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard)


krays: Altay (Barnaul), Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm', Primorsk (Vladivostok), Stavropol', Zabaykal'skiy (Chita)


federal cities: Moscow (Moskva), Saint Petersburg (Sankt-Peterburg)


autonomous oblast: Yevrey [Jewish] (Birobidzhan)


note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following w parentheses)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 14.6% (male 10,563,567/female 10,021,316)


15-64 years: 71.1% (male 48,412,612/female 52,061,604)


65 years and over: 14.4% (male 6,360,038/female 13,958,615) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk
Lotniska 1,260 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 601


over 3,047 m: 51


2,438 to 3,047 m: 197


1,524 to 2,437 m: 129


914 to 1,523 m: 102


under 914 m: 122 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 659


over 3,047 m: 4


2,438 to 3,047 m: 13


1,524 to 2,437 m: 69


914 to 1,523 m: 89


under 914 m: 484 (2007)
Terytorium total: 17,075,200 sq km


land: 16,995,800 sq km


water: 79,400 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci approximately 1.8 times the size of the US
Tlo historyczne Founded w the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy, was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new Romanov Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Rosjan Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made w Europe and Asia. Defeat w the Russo-Japoniaese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted w the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Rosjan army w Swiat War I led to widespread rioting w the major cities of the Rosjan Empire and to the overthrow w 1917 of the imperial household. The Communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened Communist rule and Rosjan dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated w the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) w an attempt to modernize Communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by grudzien 1991 splintered the USSR into Rosja and 14 other independent republics. Since then, Rosja has struggled w its efforts to build a democratic political system and market economy to replace the social, political, and economic controls of the Communist period. In tandem z its prudent management of Rosja?s windfall energy wealth, which has helped the country rebound from the economic collapse of the 1990?s, the Kremlin w recent years has overseen a recentralization of power that has undermined democratic institutions. Rosja has severely disabled the Chechen rebel movement, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 10.92 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $299 billion


expenditures: $262 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Moscow


geographic coordinates: 55 45 N, 37 35 E


time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik


note: Rosja is divided into 11 time zones
Klimat ranges from steppes w the south through humid continental w much of European Rosja; subarctic w Siberia to tundra climate w the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid w Siberia; summers vary from warm w the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
Linia brzegowa 37,653 km
Konstytucja adopted 12 grudzien 1993
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Rosjan Federation


conventional short form: Rosja


local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya


local short form: Rossiya


former: Rosjan Empire, Rosjan Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Wspolczynnik zgonow 16.04 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $384.8 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador William J. BURNS


embassy: Bolshoy Deviatinskiy Pereulok No. 8, 121099 Moscow


mailing address: PSC-77, APO AE 09721


telephone: [7] (495) 728-5000


FAX: [7] (495) 728-5090


consulate(s) general: Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Yuriy Viktorovich USHAKOV


chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007


telephone: [1] (202) 298-5700, 5701, 5704, 5708


FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735


consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco, Seattle
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Chiny and Rosja have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and w the Argun River w accordance z the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known w Japonia as the "Northern Territories" and w Rosja as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union w 1945, now administered by Rosja, and claimed by Japonia, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending Swiat War II hostilities; Rosja and Georgia agree on delimiting all but small, strategic segments of the land boundary and the maritime boundary; OSCE observers monitor volatile areas such as the Pankisi Gorge w the Akhmeti region and the Kodori Gorge w Abkhazia; Azerbejdzan, Kazachstan, and Rosja signed equidistance boundaries w the Caspian seabed but the littoral states have no consensus on dividing the water column; Rosja and Norwegia dispute their maritime limits w the Barents Sea and Rosja's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone; various groups w Finlandia advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following the Second Swiat War but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands; w maj 2005, Rosja recalled its signatures to the 1996 border agreements z Estonia (1996) and Lotwa (1997), when the two Baltic states announced issuance of unilateral declarations referencing Soviet occupation and ensuing territorial losses; Rosja demands better treatment of ethnic Rosjans w Estonia and Lotwa; Estonian citizen groups continue to press dla realignment of the boundary based on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people and parts of the Narva region within Estonia; Litwa and Rosja committed to demarcating their boundary w 2006 w accordance z the land and maritime treaty ratified by Rosja w maj 2003 and by Litwa w 1999; Litwa operates a simplified transit regime dla Rosjan nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Rosja, while still conforming, as an EU member state z an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply; preparations dla the demarcation delimitation of land boundary z Ukraina have commenced; the dispute over the boundary between Rosja and Ukraina through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov remains unresolved despite a grudzien 2003 framework agreement and on-going expert-level discussions; Kazachstan and Rosja boundary delimitation was ratified on listopad 2005 and field demarcation should commence w 2007; Rosjan Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement z the US
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $982.7 million w FY06 from US, including $847 million w non-proliferation subsidies
Ekonomia Rosja ended 2007 z its ninth straight year of growth, averaging 7% annually since the financial crisis of 1998. Although high oil prices and a relatively cheap ruble initially drove this growth, since 2003 consumer demand and, more recently, investment have played a significant role. Over the last six years, fixed capital investments have averaged real gains greater than 10% per year and personal incomes have achieved real gains more than 12% per year. During this time, poverty has declined steadily and the middle class has continued to expand. Rosja has also improved its international financial position since the 1998 financial crisis. The federal budget has run surpluses since 2001 and ended 2007 z a surplus of about 3% of Produkt krajowy brutto. Over the past several years, Rosja has used its stabilization fund based on oil taxes to prepay all Soviet-era sovereign debt to Paris Club creditors and the IMF. Foreign debt is approximately one-third of Produkt krajowy brutto. The state component of foreign debt has declined, but commercial debt to foreigners has risen strongly. Oil export earnings have allowed Rosja to increase its foreign reserves from $12 billion w 1999 to some $470 billion at yearend 2007, the third largest reserves w the world. During PUTIN's first administration, a number of important reforms were implemented w the areas of tax, banking, labor, and land codes. These achievements have raised business and investor confidence w Rosja's economic prospects, z foreign direct investment rising from $14.6 billion w 2005 to approximately $45 billion w 2007. In 2007, Rosja's Produkt krajowy brutto grew 7.6%, led by non-tradable services and goods dla the domestic market, as opposed to oil or mineral extraction and exports. Rising inflation returned w the second half of 2007, driven largely by unsterilized capital inflows and by rising food costs, and approached 12% by year-end. In 2006, Rosja signed a bilateral market access agreement z the US as a prelude to possible WTO entry, and its companies are involved w global merger and acquisition activity w the oil and gas, metals, and telecom sectors. Despite Rosja's recent success, serious problems persist. Oil, natural gas, metals, and timber account dla more than 80% of exports and 30% of government revenues, leaving the country vulnerable to swings w world commodity prices. Rosja's manufacturing base is dilapidated and must be replaced or modernized if the country is to achieve broad-based economic growth. The banking system, while increasing consumer lending and growing at a high rate, is still small relative to the banking sectors of Rosja's emerging market peers. Political uncertainties associated z this year's power transition, corruption, and lack of trust w institutions continue to dampen domestic and foreign investor sentiment. President PUTIN has granted more influence to forces within his government that desire to reassert state control over the economy. Rosja has made little progress w building the rule of law, the bedrock of a modern market economy. The government has promised additional legislative amendments to make its intellectual property protection WTO-consistent, but enforcement remains problematic.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 985.2 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 18 billion kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - import 2.9 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 1 trillion kWh (2007 est.)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m


highest point: Gora El'brus 5,633 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation w major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Grupy etniczne Rosjan 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1% (2002 census)
Kurs waluty Rosjan rubles per US dollar - 25.659 (2007), 27.19 (2006), 28.284 (2005), 28.814 (2004), 30.692 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (acting president 31 grudzien 1999-6 maj 2000, president since 7 maj 2000)


head of government: Premier Viktor Alekseyevich ZUBKOV (since 14 wrzesien 2007); First Deputy Premiers Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 14 listopad 2005) and Sergey Borisovich IVANOV (since 15 luty 2007), Deputy Premiers Aleksandr Dmitriyevich ZHUKOV (since 9 marzec 2004), Sergey Yevgenyevich NARYSHKIN (since 15 luty 2007), and Aleksey Leonidovich KUDRIN (since 24 wrzesien 2007)


cabinet: Ministries of the Government or "Government" composed of the premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the president


note: there is also a Presidential Administration (PA) that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a four-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 2 marzec 2008 (next to be held w marzec 2012); note - no vice president; if the president dies w office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months; premier appointed by the president z the approval of the Duma


election results: Dmitry MEDVEDEV elected president; percent of vote - Dmitry MEDVEDEV 70.2%, Gennady ZYUGANOV 17.7%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKY 9.4%; note - MEDVEDEV is to assume office 7 maj 2008
Eksport 18 billion kWh (2007)
Eksport $365 billion (2007 est.)
Eksport 182 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Eksport 5.08 million bbl/day (2007)
Eksport - towary petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and wood products, metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures
Eksport - partnerzy Holandia 12.3%, Wlochy 8.6%, Niemcy 8.4%, Chiny 5.4%, Ukraina 5.1%, Turcja 4.9%, Szwajcaria 4.1% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 4.6%


industry: 39.1%


services: 56.3% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 8.1% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 60 00 N, 100 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne largest country w the world w terms of area but unfavorably located w relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) dla agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak
Ladowiska helikopterow 47 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1.9%


highest 10%: 30.4% (wrzesien 2007)
Narkotyki limited cultivation of illicit cannabis and opium poppy and producer of methamphetamine, mostly dla domestic consumption; government has active illicit crop eradication program; used as transshipment point dla Asian opiates, cannabis, and Latin American cocaine bound dla growing domestic markets, to a lesser extent Western and Central Europe, and occasionally to the US; major source of heroin precursor chemicals; corruption and organized crime are key concerns; major consumer of opiates
Import 2.9 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Import $260.4 billion (2007 est.)
Import 37.5 billion cu m (2005)
Import 100,000 bbl/day (2005)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, consumer goods, medicines, meat, sugar, semifinished metal products
Import - partnerzy Niemcy 13.9%, Chiny 9.7%, Ukraina 7%, Japonia 5.9%, South Korea 5.1%, US 4.8%, Francja 4.4%, Wlochy 4.3% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 24 sierpien 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 6% (2007 est.)
Przemysl complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries including radar, missile production, and advanced electronic components, shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 11.06 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 12.6 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 9.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 11.9% annual average


note: 12% at year-end (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BSEC, CBSS, CE, CERN (observer), CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, G- 8, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer), ZC
Nawadniane tereny 46,000 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Konstytucjaal Court; Supreme Court; Supreme Arbitration Court; judges dla all courts are appointed dla life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president
Sila robocza 75.1 million (listopad 2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 10.8%


industry: 28.8%


services: 60.5% (listopad 2007 est.)
Granica total: 20,096.5 km


border countries: Azerbejdzan 284 km, Bialorus 959 km, Chiny (southeast) 3,605 km, Chiny (south) 40 km, Estonia 294 km, Finlandia 1,340 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazachstan 6,846 km, North Korea 19 km, Lotwa 217 km, Litwa (Kaliningrad Oblast) 280.5 km, Mongolia 3,485 km, Norwegia 196 km, Polska (Kaliningrad Oblast) 232 km, Ukraina 1,576 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 7.17%


permanent crops: 0.11%


other: 92.72% (2005)
Jezyki Rosjan, many minority languages
System prawny based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (168 seats; as of lipiec 2000, members appointed by the top executive and legislative officials w each of the 84 federal administrative units - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg; to serve four-year terms) and the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats; as of 2007, all members elected by proportional representation from party lists winning at least 7% of the vote; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: State Duma - last held 2 grudzien 2007 (next to be held w grudzien 2011)


election results: State Duma - United Rosja 64.3%, CPRF 11.5%, LDPR 8.1%, JR 7.7%, other 8.4%; total seats by party - United Rosja 315, CPRF 57, LDPR 40, JR 38
Zywotnosc total population: 65.87 years


male: 59.12 years


female: 73.03 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99.4%


male: 99.7%


female: 99.2% (2002 census)
Lokalizacja Northern Asia (the area west of the Urals is considered part of Europe), bordering the Ocean Arktyczny, between Europe and the North Ocean Spokojny
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 1,130 ships (1000 GRT or over) 4,712,349 GRT/5,747,083 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 28, cargo 718, carrier 2, chemical tanker 27, combination ore/oil 35, container 10, passenger 15, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker 215, refrigerated cargo 51, roll on/roll off 14, specialized tanker 7


foreign-owned: 101 (Belgia 6, Cypr 2, Niemcy 2, Grecja 1, South Korea 1, Lotwa 2, Szwajcaria 6, Turcja 70, Ukraina 10, US 1)


registered w other countries: 469 (Antigua i Barbuda 5, Bahamas 5, Belize 39, Bulgaria 1, Kambodza 112, Komory 9, Cypr 50, Dominika 2, Georgia 17, North Korea 1, Liberia 87, Malta 66, Wyspy Marshalla 4, Mongolia 17, Panama 9, Sierra Leone 5, St Kitts and Nevis 14, St Vincent and The Grenadines 19, Tajlandia 1, Tuvalu 4, Vanuatu 1, Wenezuela 1, unknown 21) (2007)
Wojsko Ground Forces (SV), Navy (VMF), Air Forces (Voyenno-Vozdushniye Sily, VVS); Airborne Troops (VDV), Strategic Rocket Troops (RVSN), and Space Troops (KV) are independent "combat arms," not subordinate to any of the three branches; Rosjan Ground Forces include the following combat arms: motorized-rifle troops, tank troops, missile and artillery troops, air defense of ground troops (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3.9% (2005)
Swieto narodowe Rosja Day, 12 czerwiec (1990)
Narodowosc noun: Rosjan(s)


adjective: Rosjan
Naturalne zagrozenia permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity w the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Rosja
Surowce naturalne wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber


note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources
Wspolczynnik migracji 0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi condensate 122 km; gas 158,699 km; oil 72,347 km; refined products 13,658 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Agrarian Party [Vladimir PLOTNIKOV]; A Just Rosja or JR [Sergey MIRONOV] (formed from the merger of three small political parties: Rodina (Motherland), Pensioners Party, and Party of Life); Civic Force [Mikhail BARSHCHEVSKIY]; Communist Party of the Rosjan Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy Andreyevich ZYUGANOV]; Democratic Party [Andrey BOGDANOV]; Green Party [Anatoliy PANFILOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Rosja or LDPR [Vladimir Volfovich ZHIRINOVSKIY]; Party of Rosja's Rebirth [Gennadiy SELEZNEV]; Patriots of Rosja [Gennadiy SEMIGIN]; Peace and Unity Party [Sazhi UMALATOVA]; People's Union [Sergey BABURIN]; Social Justice Party [Arkadiy GAYDAMAK]; Union of Right Forces or SPS [Nikita BELYKH]; United Rosja or UR [Boris Vyacheslavovich GRYZLOV]; Yabloko Party [Grigoriy Alekseyevich YAVLINSKIY]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 141,377,752 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 15.8% (listopad 2007)
Przyrost naturalny -0.484% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 323, FM 1,500 est., shortwave 62 (2004)
Linie kolejowe total: 87,157 km


broad gauge: 86,200 km 1.520-m gauge (40,300 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 957 km 1.067-m gauge (on Sakhalin Island)


note: an additional 30,000 km of non-common carrier lines serve industries (2006)
Religie Rosjan Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.)


note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Rosja has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.054 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.456 male(s)/female


total population: 0.859 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: the telephone system is experiencing significant changes; there are more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly w urban centers; Internet and e-mail services are improving; Rosja has made progress toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary dla a market economy; the estimated number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million w 1998 to 150 million w 2006; a large demand dla main line service remains unsatisfied, but fixed-line operators continue to grow their services


domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems w 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available w many areas; w rural areas, the telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low density


international: country code - 7; Rosja is connected internationally by undersea fiber optic cables; digital switches w several cities provide more than 50,000 lines dla international calls; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 40.1 million (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 150 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 7,306 (1998)
Uksztaltowanie terenu broad plain z low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra w Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.39 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 5.9% (listopad 2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 102,000 km (including 33,000 km z guaranteed depth)


note: 72,000 km system w European Rosja links Baltic Sea, White Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Azov, and Black Sea (2006)
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