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Rosja (2003)

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Rosja 2003 roku

 Rosja
Podzial administracyjny 49 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast), 21 republics* (respublik, singular - respublika), 10 autonomous okrugs**(avtonomnykh okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy okrug), 6 krays*** (krayev, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (singular - gorod)****, and 1 autonomous oblast*****(avtonomnaya oblast'); Adygeya (Maykop)*, Aginskiy Buryatskiy (Aginskoye)**, Altay (Gorno-Altaysk)*, Altayskiy (Barnaul)***, Amurskaya (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'skaya, Astrakhanskaya, Bashkortostan (Ufa)*, Belgorodskaya, Bryanskaya, Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude)*, Chechnya (Groznyy)*, Chelyabinskaya, Chitinskaya, Chukotskiy (Anadyr')**, Chuvashiya (Cheboksary)*, Dagestan (Makhachkala)*, Evenkiyskiy (Tura)**, Ingushetiya (Nazran')*, Irkutskaya, Ivanovskaya, Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik)*, Kaliningradskaya, Kalmykiya (Elista)*, Kaluzhskaya, Kamchatskaya (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk)*, Kareliya (Petrozavodsk)*, Kemerovskaya, Khabarovskiy***, Khakasiya (Abakan)*, Khanty-Mansiyskiy (Khanty-Mansiysk)**, Kirovskaya, Komi (Syktyvkar)*, Koryakskiy (Palana)**, Kostromskaya, Krasnodarskiy***, Krasnoyarskiy***, Kurganskaya, Kurskaya, Leningradskaya, Lipetskaya, Magadanskaya, Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola)*, Mordoviya (Saransk)*, Moskovskaya, Moskva (Moscow)****, Murmanskaya, Nenetskiy (Nar'yan-Mar)**, Nizhegorodskaya, Novgorodskaya, Novosibirskaya, Omskaya, Orenburgskaya, Orlovskaya (Orel), Penzenskaya, Permskaya, Komi-Permyatskiy (Kudymkar)**, Primorskiy (Vladivostok)***, Pskovskaya, Rostovskaya, Ryazanskaya, Sakha (Yakutiya)*, Sakhalinskaya (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samarskaya, Sankt-Peterburg (Saint Petersburg)****, Saratovskaya, Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya [North Ossetia] (Vladikavkaz)*, Smolenskaya, Stavropol'skiy***, Sverdlovskaya (Yekaterinburg), Tambovskaya, Tatarstan (Kazan')*, Taymyrskiy (Dudinka)**, Tomskaya, Tul'skaya, Tverskaya, Tyumenskaya, Tyva (Kyzyl)*, Udmurtiya (Izhevsk)*, Ul'yanovskaya, Ust'-Ordynskiy Buryatskiy (Ust'-Ordynskiy)**, Vladimirskaya, Volgogradskaya, Vologodskaya, Voronezhskaya, Yamalo-Nenetskiy (Salekhard)**, Yaroslavskaya, Yevreyskaya*****; note - when using a place name z an adjectival ending 'skaya' or 'skiy,' the word Oblast' or Avonomnyy Okrug or Kray should be added to the place name


note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following w parentheses)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 16% (male 11,815,360; female 11,335,715)


15-64 years: 70.4% (male 49,399,322; female 52,367,194)


65 years and over: 13.6% (male 6,394,411; female 13,214,276) (2003 est.)
Rolinictwo grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk
Lotniska 2,743 (2002)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 471


over 3,047 m: 56


2,438 to 3,047 m: 178


1,524 to 2,437 m: 76


914 to 1,523 m: 69


under 914 m: 92 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 2,272


over 3,047 m: 28


2,438 to 3,047 m: 118


1,524 to 2,437 m: 204


914 to 1,523 m: 324


under 914 m: 1,598 (2002)
Terytorium total: 17,075,200 sq km


land: 16,995,800 sq km


water: 79,400 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci approximately 1.8 times the size of the US
Tlo historyczne Repeated devastating defeats of the Rosjan army w Swiat War I led to widespread rioting w the major cities of the Rosjan Empire and to the overthrow w 1917 of the 300-year old Romanov Dynasty. The Communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Josef STALIN (1928-53) strengthened Rosjan dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated w the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) w an attempt to modernize Communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by grudzien 1991 splintered the USSR into 15 independent republics. Since then, Rosja has struggled w its efforts to build a democratic political system and market economy to replace the strict social, political, and economic controls of the Communist period. A determined guerrilla conflict still plagues Rosja w Chechnya.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 10.09 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budzet revenues: $70 billion


expenditures: $62 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
Stolica Moscow
Klimat ranges from steppes w the south through humid continental w much of European Rosja; subarctic w Siberia to tundra climate w the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid w Siberia; summers vary from warm w the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
Linia brzegowa 37,653 km
Konstytucja adopted 12 grudzien 1993
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Rosjan Federation


conventional short form: Rosja


local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya


local short form: Rossiya


former: Rosjan Empire, Rosjan Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Waluta Rosjan ruble (RUR)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 13.99 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $153.5 billion (yearend 2002)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Alexander VERSHBOW


embassy: Bolshoy Devyatinskiy Pereulok No. 8, 121099 Moscow


mailing address: PSC-77, APO AE 09721


telephone: [7] (095) 728-5000


FAX: [7] (095) 728-5090


consulate(s) general: Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Yuriy Viktorovich USHAKOV


chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007


telephone: [1] (202) 298-5700, 5701, 5704, 5708


FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735


consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco, and Seattle
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Chiny continues to seek a mutually acceptable solution to the disputed alluvial islands at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri rivers and a small island on the Argun River as part of the 2001 Treaty of Good Neighborliness, Friendship, and Cooperation; the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group identified by the Rosjans as the "Southern Kurils" and by Japonia as the "Northern Territories" occupied by the Soviet Union w 1945, now administered by Rosja, claimed by Japonia; boundary z Georgia has been largely delimited but not demarcated z several small, strategic segments remaining w dispute and OSCE observers monitoring volatile areas such as the Pankisi Gorge w the Akhmeti region and the Argun Gorge w Abkhazia; equidistant seabed treaties have been signed z Azerbejdzan and Kazachstan w the Caspian Sea but no resolution on dividing the water column among any of the littoral states; Rosja and Norwegia dispute their maritime limits w the Barents Sea and Rosja's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone; Rosja continues to reject signing and ratifying the joint 1996 technical border agreement z Estonia; the Rosjan Parliament refuses to consider ratification of the boundary treaties z Estonia and Lotwa, but w maj 2003, ratified land and maritime boundary treaty z Litwa, which ratified the 1997 treaty w 1999, legalizing limits of former Soviet republic borders; discussions are still ongoing among Rosja, Litwa and the EU concerning a simplified transit document dla residents of the Kaliningrad coastal exclave to transit through Litwa to Rosja; land delimitation z Ukraina is ratified, but maritime regime of the Sea of Azov and Kerch Strait is unresolved; delimitation z Kazachstan is scheduled dla completion w 2003; Rosjan Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement z the US w the Bering Sea
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie in FY01 from US, $979 million (including $750 million w non-proliferation subsidies); w 2001 from EU, $200 million
Ekonomia A decade after the implosion of the Soviet Union w grudzien 1991, Rosja is still struggling to establish a modern market economy and achieve strong economic growth. In contrast to its trading partners w Central Europe - which were able within 3 to 5 years to overcome the initial production declines that accompanied the launch of market reforms - Rosja saw its economy contract dla five years, as the executive and legislature dithered over the implementation of many of the basic foundations of a market economy. Rosja achieved a slight recovery w 1997, but the government's stubborn budget deficits and the country's poor business climate made it vulnerable when the global financial crisis swept through w 1998. The crisis culminated w the sierpien depreciation of the ruble, a debt default by the government, and a sharp deterioration w living standards dla most of the population. The economy subsequently has rebounded, growing by an average of more than 6% annually w 1999-2002 on the back of higher oil prices and the 60% depreciation of the ruble w 1998. These Produkt krajowy brutto numbers, along z a renewed government effort to advance lagging structural reforms, have raised business and investor confidence over Rosja's prospects w its second decade of transition. Yet serious problems persist. Oil, natural gas, metals, and timber account dla more than 80% of exports, leaving the country vulnerable to swings w world prices. Rosja's industrial base is increasingly dilapidated and must be replaced or modernized if the country is to maintain vigorous economic growth. Other problems include a weak banking system, a poor business climate that discourages both domestic and foreign investors, corruption, local and regional government intervention w the courts, and widespread lack of trust w institutions. In 2003 President PUTIN further tightened his control over the "oligarchs," especially w the realm of political expression.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 773 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 21.16 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - import 7 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 846.5 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel: 64.3%


hydro: 20.5%


nuclear: 14.8%


other: 0.4% (2001)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m


highest point: Gora El'brus 5,633 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation w major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Persistent Organic Pollutants
Grupy etniczne Rosjan 81.5%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 3%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%, Bialorusian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%, other 8.1% (1989)
Kurs waluty Rosjan rubles per US dollar - 31.27 (2002), 29.17 (2001), 28.13 (2000), 24.62 (1999), 9.71 (1998)


note: the post-1 styczen 1998 ruble is equal to 1,000 of the pre-1 styczen 1998 rubles
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (acting president since 31 grudzien 1999, president since 7 maj 2000)


head of government: Premier Mikhail Mikhaylovich KASYANOV (since 7 maj 2000); Deputy Premiers Viktor Borisovich KHRISTENKO (since 31 maj 1999), Aleksey Leonidovich KUDRIN (since 18 maj 2000), Aleksey Vasilyevich GORDEYEV (since 20 maj 2000), Boris Sergeyevich ALESHIN (since 24 kwiecien 2003), Galina Nikolayevna KARELOVA (since 24 kwiecien 2003), Vladimir Anatolyevich YAKOVLEV (since 16 czerwiec 2003)


cabinet: Ministries of the Government or "Government" composed of the premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the president


note: there is also a Presidential Administration (PA) that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a four-year term; election last held 26 marzec 2000 (next to be held marzec 2004); note - no vice president; if the president dies w office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier succeeds him; the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months; premier appointed by the president z the approval of the Duma


election results: Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN elected president; percent of vote - Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN 52.9%, Gennadiy Andreyevich ZYUGANOV 29.2%, Grigoriy Alekseyevich YAVLINSKIY 5.8%
Eksport 21.16 billion kWh (2001)
Eksport $104.6 billion (2002 est.)
Eksport 205.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Eksport NA (2001)
Eksport - towary petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and wood products, metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures
Eksport - partnerzy Niemcy 7.5%, Wlochy 6.9%, Holandia 6.7%, Chiny 6.3%, US 6.1%, Ukraina 5.5%, Bialorus 5.4%, Szwajcaria 5% (2002)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $1.409 trillion (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 5.8%


industry: 34.6%


services: 59.6% (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $9,700 (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 4.3% (2002 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 60 00 N, 100 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne largest country w the world w terms of area but unfavorably located w relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) dla agriculture; Mount Elbrus is Europe's tallest peak
Autostrady total: 532,393 km


paved: 358,833 km


unpaved: 173,560 km (2000)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 5.9%


highest 10%: 47% (2001)
Narkotyki limited cultivation of illicit cannabis and opium poppy and producer of methamphetamine, mostly dla domestic consumption; government has active illicit crop eradication program; used as transshipment point dla Asian opiates, cannabis, and Latin American cocaine bound dla growing domestic markets, to a lesser extent Western and Central Europe, and occasionally to the US; major source of heroin precursor chemicals; corruption and organized crime are key concerns; heroin increasingly popular w domestic market
Import 7 billion kWh (2001)
Import $60.7 billion (2002 est.)
Import 32.7 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Import NA (2001)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, consumer goods, medicines, meat, sugar, semifinished metal products
Import - partnerzy Niemcy 14.3%, Bialorus 8.9%, Ukraina 7.1%, US 6.4%, Chiny 5.2%, Wlochy 4.8%, Kazachstan 4.3%, Francja 4.1% (2002)
Niepodleglosc 24 sierpien 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 3.7% (2002 est.)
Przemysl complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 19.51 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 21.53 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 17.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflacja 15% (2002 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BSEC, CBSS, CE, CERN (observer), CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, G- 8, GEF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMISET, UNMOP, UNMOVIC, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer), ZC
Dostawcy internetu 300 (czerwiec 2000)
Nawadniane tereny 46,630 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Konstytucjaal Court; Supreme Court; Superior Court of Arbitration; judges dla all courts are appointed dla life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president
Sila robocza 71.8 million (2002 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 12.3%, industry 22.7%, services 65% (2002 est.)
Granica total: 19,990 km


border countries: Azerbejdzan 284 km, Bialorus 959 km, Chiny (southeast) 3,605 km, Chiny (south) 40 km, Estonia 294 km, Finlandia 1,313 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazachstan 6,846 km, North Korea 19 km, Lotwa 217 km, Litwa (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,485 km, Norwegia 196 km, Polska (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Ukraina 1,576 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 7.46%


permanent crops: 0.11%


other: 92.43% (1998 est.)
Jezyki Rosjan, other
System prawny based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (178 seats; as of lipiec 2000, members appointed by the top executive and legislative officials w each of the 89 federal administrative units - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg; members serve four-year terms) and the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats; 225 seats elected by proportional representation from party lists winning at least 5% of the vote, and 225 seats from single-member constituencies; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: State Duma - last held 7 grudzien 2003 (next to be held NA grudzien 2007)


election results: State Duma - percent of vote received by parties clearing the 5% threshold entitling them to a proportional share of the 225 party list seats - United Rosja 37.1%, KPRF 12.7%, LDPR 11.6%, Motherland 9.1%; seats by party - United Rosja 222, KPRF 53, LDPR 38, Motherland 37, People's Party 19, Yabloko 4, Union of Rightist Forces 2, other 7, independents 65, repeat election required 3
Zywotnosc total population: 67.66 years


male: 62.46 years


female: 73.11 years (2003 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99.6%


male: 99.7%


female: 99.5% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is included z Europe), bordering the Ocean Arktyczny, between Europe and the North Ocean Spokojny
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


exclusive economic zone: 200 NM


territorial sea: 12 NM
Flota handlowa total: 933 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,495,122 GRT/5,490,103 DWT


ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 22, cargo 553, chemical tanker 12, combination bulk 21, combination ore/oil 36, container 30, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger 38, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 167, refrigerated cargo 21, roll on/roll off 20, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 1


note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belize 1, Kambodza 1, Cypr 9, Dania 1, Estonia 4, Grecja 3, Honduras 1, Lotwa 4, Litwa 3, Moldawia 3, Holandia 1, South Korea 1, Turcja 18, Turkmenistan 2, Ukraina 10, UK 5, US 1 (2002 est.)
Wojsko Ground Forces, Navy, Air Forces; Airborne troops, Strategic Rocket Forces, and Military Space Forces are classified as independent combat arms, not subordinate to any of the three branches
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $NA
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) NA%
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 36 million (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 24 million (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age (2003)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 1.243 million (2003 est.)
Swieto narodowe Rosja Day, 12 czerwiec (1990)
Narodowosc noun: Rosjan(s)


adjective: Rosjan
Naturalne zagrozenia permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity w the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Rosja
Surowce naturalne wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber


note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources
Wspolczynnik migracji 0.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Rurociagi gas 135,771 km; oil 70,833 km; refined products 11,536 km; water 23 km (2003)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Communist Party of the Rosjan Federation or KPRF [Gennadiy Andreyevich ZYUGANOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Rosja or LDPR [Vladimir Volfovich ZHIRINOVSKIY]; Motherland Bloc (Rodina) [Sergey GLAZYEV and Dmitriy ROGOZIN]; People's Party [Gennadiy RAYKOV]; Union of Rightist Forces or SPS [Anatoliy Borisovich CHUBAYS, Yegor Timurovich GAYDAR, Irina Mutsuovna KHAKAMADA, Boris Yefimovich NEMTSOV]; United Rosja [Boris Vyacheslavovich GRYZLOV]; Yabloko Party [Grigoriy Alekseyevich YAVLINSKIY]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 144,526,278 (lipiec 2003 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 25% (37622 est.)
Przyrost naturalny -0.3% (2003 est.)
Porty i stocznie Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinsky, Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', De-Kastri, Indigirskiy, Kaliningrad, Kandalaksha, Kazan', Khabarovsk, Kholmsk, Krasnoyarsk, Lazarev, Mago, Mezen', Moscow, Murmansk, Nakhodka, Nevel'sk, Novorossiysk, Onega, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, Rostov, Shakhtersk, Saint Petersburg, Sochi, Taganrog, Tuapse, Uglegorsk, Vanino, Vladivostok, Volgograd, Vostochnyy, Vyborg
Stacje radiowe AM 420, FM 447, shortwave 56 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 87,157 km


broad gauge: 86,200 km 1.520-m gauge (40,300 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 957 km 1.067-m gauge (on Sakhalin Island)


note:: an additional 30,000 km of non-common carrrier lines serve industries (2002)
Religie Rosjan Orthodox, Muslim, other
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female


total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: the telephone system has undergone significant changes w the 1990s; there are more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly w urban centers; Internet and e-mail services are improving; Rosja has made progress toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary dla a market economy; however, a large demand dla main line service remains unsatisfied


domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems w 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available w many areas; w rural areas, the telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low density


international: Rosja is connected internationally by three undersea fiber-optic cables; digital switches w several cities provide more than 50,000 lines dla international calls; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 30 million (1998)
Telefony komorkowe 19 million (styczen 2003)
Stacje telewizyjne 7,306 (1998)
Uksztaltowanie terenu broad plain z low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra w Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.33 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 7.9% plus considerable underemployment (2002)
Drogi wodne 95,900 km (total routes w general use)


note: routes z navigation guides serving the Rosjan River Fleet - 95,900 km; routes z night navigational aids - 60,400 km; man-made navigable routes - 16,900 km (styczen 1994)
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