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Republika Poludniowej Afryki (2008)

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Republika Poludniowej AfrykiRepublika Poludniowej Afryki (2001) (porownaj)
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Republika Poludniowej Afryki 2008 roku

 Republika Poludniowej Afryki
Podzial administracyjny 9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North-West, Western Cape
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 29.1% (male 6,447,623/female 6,370,909)

15-64 years: 65.5% (male 14,040,210/female 14,761,179)

65 years and over: 5.4% (male 917,227/female 1,460,680) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; beef, poultry, mutton, wool, dairy products
Lotniska 728 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 146

over 3,047 m: 10

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 51

914 to 1,523 m: 67

under 914 m: 13 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 582

1,524 to 2,437 m: 34

914 to 1,523 m: 300

under 914 m: 248 (2007)
Terytorium total: 1,219,912 sq km

land: 1,219,912 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward Island)
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Tlo historyczne Dutch traders landed at the southern tip of modern day Republika Poludniowej Afryki w 1652 and established a stopover point on the spice route between the Holandia and the East, founding the city of Cape Town. After the British seized the Cape of Good Hope area w 1806, many of the Dutch settlers (the Boers) trekked north to found their own republics. The discovery of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) spurred wealth and immigration and intensified the subjugation of the native inhabitants. The Boers resisted British encroachments but were defeated w the Boer War (1899-1902); however, the British and the Afrikaners, as the Boers became known, ruled together under the Union of Republika Poludniowej Afryki. In 1948, the National Party was voted into power and instituted a policy of apartheid - the separate development of the races. The first multi-racial elections w 1994 brought an end to apartheid and ushered w black majority rule.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 17.94 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $68.2 billion

expenditures: $66.7 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Pretoria (administrative capital)

geographic coordinates: 25 42 S, 28 13 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

note: Cape Town (legislative capital); Bloemfontein (judicial capital)
Klimat mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights
Linia brzegowa 2,798 km
Konstytucja 10 grudzien 1996; this new constitution was certified by the Konstytucjaal Court on 4 grudzien 1996, was signed by then President MANDELA on 10 grudzien 1996, and entered into effect on 4 luty 1997; it is being implemented w phases
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Republika Poludniowej Afryki

conventional short form: Republika Poludniowej Afryki

former: Union of Republika Poludniowej Afryki

abbreviation: RSA
Wspolczynnik zgonow 22.45 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $64.8 billion (30 wrzesien 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Eric BOST

embassy: 877 Pretorius Street, Pretoria

mailing address: P. O. Box 9536, Pretoria 0001

telephone: [27] (12) 342-1048

FAX: [27] (12) 342-2244

consulate(s) general: Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Welile sierpienine NHLAPO

chancery: 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 232-4400

FAX: [1] (202) 265-1607

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Republika Poludniowej Afryki has placed military along the border to apprehend the thousands of Zimbabweans fleeing economic dysfunction and political persecution; as of styczen 2007, Republika Poludniowej Afryki also supports large numbers of refugees and asylum seekers from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (33,000), Somalia (20,000), Burundi (6,500), and other states w Africa (26,000); managed dispute z Namibia over the location of the boundary w the Orange River; w 2006, Swazi king advocates resort to ICJ to claim parts of Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal from Republika Poludniowej Afryki
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $700 million (2005)
Ekonomia Republika Poludniowej Afryki is a middle-income, emerging market z an abundant supply of natural resources; well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors; a stock exchange that is 17th largest w the world; and modern infrastructure supporting an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers throughout the region. Growth has been robust since 2004, as Republika Poludniowej Afryki has reaped the benefits of macroeconomic stability and a global commodities boom. However, unemployment remains high and outdated infrastructure has constrained growth. At the end of 2007, Republika Poludniowej Afryki began to experience an electricity crisis because state power supplier Eskom suffered supply problems z aged plants, necessitating "load-shedding" cuts to residents and businesses w the major cities. Daunting economic problems remain from the apartheid era - especially poverty, lack of economic empowerment among the disadvantaged groups, and a shortage of public transportation. Republika Poludniowej Afrykin economic policy is fiscally conservative but pragmatic, focusing on controlling inflation, maintaining a budget surplus, and using state-owned enterprises to deliver basic services to low-income areas as a means to increase job growth and household income.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 241.4 billion kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 13.42 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 11.32 billion kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 264 billion kWh (2007)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Atlantycki 0 m

highest point: Njesuthi 3,408 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures; growth w water usage outpacing supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting w acid rain; soil erosion; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne black African 79%, white 9.6%, colored 8.9%, Indien/Asian 2.5% (2001 census)
Kurs waluty rand per US dollar - 7.05 (2007), 6.7649 (2006), 6.3593 (2005), 6.4597 (2004), 7.5648 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 czerwiec 1999); Executive Deputy President Phumzile MLAMBO-NGCUKA (since 23 czerwiec 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 czerwiec 1999); Executive Deputy President Phumzile MLAMBO-NGCUKA (since 23 czerwiec 2005)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held on 24 kwiecien 2004 (next to be held w kwiecien 2009)

election results: Thabo MBEKI elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 100% (by acclamation)
Eksport 13.42 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $71.52 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 217,700 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary gold, diamonds, platinum, other metals and minerals, machinery and equipment
Eksport - partnerzy Japonia 12.1%, US 11.8%, UK 9%, Niemcy 7.6%, Holandia 5.3%, Chiny 4% (2006)
Rok podatkowy 1 kwiecien - 31 marzec
Opis flagi two equal width horizontal bands of red (top) and blue separated by a central green band which splits into a horizontal Y, the arms of which end at the corners of the hoist side; the Y embraces a black isosceles triangle from which the arms are separated by narrow yellow bands; the red and blue bands are separated from the green band and its arms by narrow white stripes
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 2.2%

industry: 27%

services: 70.9% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 29 00 S, 24 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne Republika Poludniowej Afryki completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Suazi
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1.4%

highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)
Narkotyki transshipment center dla heroin, hashish, and cocaine, as well as a major cultivator of marijuana w its own right; cocaine and heroin consumption on the rise; world's largest market dla illicit methaqualone, usually imported illegally from Indie through various east African countries, but increasingly producing its own synthetic drugs dla domestic consumption; attractive venue dla money launderers given the increasing level of organized criminal and narcotics activity w the region and the size of the Republika Poludniowej Afrykin economy
Import 11.32 billion kWh (2007)
Import $76.59 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 319,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, scientific instruments, foodstuffs
Import - partnerzy Niemcy 12.6%, Chiny 10%, US 7.6%, Japonia 6.6%, Arabia Saudyjska 5.3%, UK 5% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 31 maj 1910 (Union of Republika Poludniowej Afryki formed from four British colonies: Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, and Orange Free State); 31 maj 1961 (republic declared) 27 kwiecien 1994 (majority rule)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 6.2% (2007 est.)
Przemysl mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textiles, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs, commercial ship repair
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 59.44 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 62.95 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 55.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 6.5% (2007 est.)
Nawadniane tereny 14,980 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Konstytucjaal Court; Supreme Court of Appeals; High Courts; Magistrate Courts
Sila robocza 20.49 million economically active (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 9%

industry: 26%

services: 65% (2007 est.)
Granica total: 4,862 km

border countries: Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km, Mozambik 491 km, Namibia 967 km, Suazi 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 12.1%

permanent crops: 0.79%

other: 87.11% (2005)
Jezyki IsiZulu 23.8%, IsiXhosa 17.6%, Afrikaans 13.3%, Sepedi 9.4%, English 8.2%, Setswana 8.2%, Sesotho 7.9%, Xitsonga 4.4%, other 7.2% (2001 census)
System prawny based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament consisting of the National Assembly (400 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional representation to serve five-year terms) and the National Council of Provinces (90 seats, 10 members elected by each of the nine provincial legislatures dla five-year terms; has special powers to protect regional interests, including the safeguarding of cultural and linguistic traditions among ethnic minorities); note - following the implementation of the new constitution on 4 luty 1997, the former Senate was disbanded and replaced by the National Council of Provinces z essentially no change w membership and party affiliations, although the new institution's responsibilities have been changed somewhat by the new constitution

elections: National Assembly and National Council of Provinces - last held on 14 kwiecien 2004 (next to be held w 2009)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - ANC 69.7%, DA 12.4%, IFP 7%, UDM 2.3%, NNP 1.7%, ACDP 1.6%, other 5.3%; seats by party - ANC 279, DA 50, IFP 28, UDM 9, NNP 7, ACDP 6, other 21; National Council of Provinces - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Zywotnosc total population: 42.45 years

male: 43.21 years

female: 41.66 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 86.4%

male: 87%

female: 85.7% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Southern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 28,722 GRT/32,226 DWT

by type: container 1, petroleum tanker 1

foreign-owned: 1 (Dania 1)

registered w other countries: 6 (Bahamas 1, Seszele 1, UK 4, unknown 1) (2007)
Wojsko - uwagi with the end of apartheid and the establishment of majority rule, former military, black homelands forces, and ex-opposition forces were integrated into the Republika Poludniowej Afrykin National Defense Force (SANDF); as of 2003 the integration process was considered complete
Wojsko Republika Poludniowej Afrykin National Defense Force (SANDF): Republika Poludniowej Afrykin Army, Republika Poludniowej Afrykin Navy (SAN), Republika Poludniowej Afrykin Air Force (SAAF), Joint Operations Command, Joint Support Command, Military Intelligence, Military Health Service (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.7% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Freedom Day, 27 kwiecien (1994)
Narodowosc noun: Republika Poludniowej Afrykin(s)

adjective: Republika Poludniowej Afrykin
Naturalne zagrozenia prolonged droughts
Surowce naturalne gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population

note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into Republika Poludniowej Afryki and Botswana w search of better economic opportunities (2007 est.)
Rurociagi condensate 100 km; gas 1,177 km; oil 992 km; refined products 1,379 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy African Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE]; African National Congress or ANC [Jacob ZUMA]; Democratic Alliance or DA [Helen ZILLE]; Freedom Front Plus or FF+ [Pieter MULDER]; Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI]; New National Party or NNP; Pan-Africanist Congress or PAC [Motsoko PHEKO]; United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Congress of Republika Poludniowej Afrykin Trade Unions or COSATU [Zwelinzima VAVI, general secretary]; Republika Poludniowej Afrykin Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary]; Republika Poludniowej Afrykin National Civics Organization or SANCO [Mlungisi HLONGWANE, national president]; note - COSATU and SACP are w a formal alliance z the ANC
Ludnosc 43,997,828

note: estimates dla this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result w lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes w the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 50% (2000 est.)
Przyrost naturalny -0.46% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 14, FM 347 (plus 243 repeaters), shortwave 1 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 20,872 km

narrow gauge: 20,436 km 1.065-m gauge (8,931 km electrified); 436 km 0.610-m gauge (2006)
Religie Zion Christian 11.1%, Pentecostal/Charismatic 8.2%, Catholic 7.1%, Methodist 6.8%, Dutch Reformed 6.7%, Anglican 3.8%, Muslim 1.5%, other Christian 36%, other 2.3%, unspecified 1.4%, none 15.1% (2001 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.012 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.951 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.628 male(s)/female

total population: 0.947 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: the system is the best developed and most modern w Africa

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 100 telephones per 100 persons; consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria

international: country code - 27; the SAT-3/WASC and SAFE fiber optic cable systems connect w Republika Poludniowej Afryki providing connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 2 Ocean Atlantycki)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 4.729 million (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 39.66 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 556 (plus 144 network repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.16 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 24.2% (2007 est.)
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