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Republika Dominikanska (2008)

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Republika Dominikanska 2008 roku

 Republika Dominikanska
Podzial administracyjny 31 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Bahoruco, Barahona, Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, El Seibo, Elias Pina, Espaillat, Hato major, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata, Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, San Cristobal, San Jose de Ocoa, San Juan, San Pedro de Macoris, Sanchez Ramirez, Santiago, Santiago Rodriguez, Santo Domingo, Valverde
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 32.1% (male 1,532,813/female 1,477,033)

15-64 years: 62.2% (male 2,971,620/female 2,851,207)

65 years and over: 5.7% (male 247,738/female 285,407) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco, rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products, beef, eggs
Lotniska 34 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 15

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 19

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 11 (2007)
Terytorium total: 48,730 sq km

land: 48,380 sq km

water: 350 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire
Tlo historyczne Explored and claimed by Christopher COLUMBUS on his first voyage w 1492, the island of Hispaniola became a springboard dla Spanish conquest of the Caribbean and the American mainland. In 1697, Hiszpania recognized French dominion over the western third of the island, which w 1804 became Haiti. The remainder of the island, by then known as Santo Domingo, sought to gain its own independence w 1821, but was conquered and ruled by the Haitians dla 22 years; it finally attained independence as the Republika Dominikanska w 1844. In 1861, the Dominikans voluntarily returned to the Spanish Empire, but two years later they launched a war that restored independence w 1865. A legacy of unsettled, mostly non-representative rule followed, capped by the dictatorship of Rafael Leonidas TRUJILLO from 1930-61. Juan BOSCH was elected president w 1962, but was deposed w a military coup w 1963. In 1965, the Stany Zjednoczone led an intervention w the midst of a civil war sparked by an uprising to restore BOSCH. In 1966, Joaquin BALAGUER defeated BOSCH w an election to become president. BALAGUER maintained a tight grip on power dla most of the next 30 years when international reaction to flawed elections forced him to curtail his term w 1996. Since then, regular competitive elections have been held w which opposition candidates have won the presidency. Former President (1996-2000) Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna won election to a second term w 2004 following a constitutional amendment allowing presidents to serve more than one term.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 22.91 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $7.014 billion

expenditures: $6.985 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Santo Domingo

geographic coordinates: 18 28 N, 69 54 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation w rainfall
Linia brzegowa 1,288 km
Konstytucja 28 listopad 1966; amended 25 lipiec 2002
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republika Dominikanska

conventional short form: The Dominikan

local long form: Republica Dominikana

local short form: La Dominikana
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.32 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $8.842 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador P. Robert FANNIN

embassy: corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo Navarro, Santo Domingo

mailing address: Unit 5500, APO AA 34041-5500

telephone: [1] (809) 221-2171

FAX: [1] (809) 686-7437
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Flavio Dario ESPINAL Jacobo

chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-6280

FAX: [1] (202) 265-8057

consulate(s) general: Anchorage, Boston, Chicago, majaguez (Portoryko), Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Portoryko)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Haitian migrants cross the porous border into the Republika Dominikanska to find work; illegal migrants from the Republika Dominikanska cross the Mona Passage each year to Portoryko to find better work
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $76.99 million (2005)
Ekonomia The Republika Dominikanska has enjoyed strong Produkt krajowy brutto growth since 2005, z double digit growth w 2006. In 2007, exports were bolstered by the nearly 50% increase w nickel prices; however, prices are expected to fall w 2008, contributing to a slowdown w Produkt krajowy brutto growth dla the year. Although the country has long been viewed primarily as an exporter of sugar, coffee, and tobacco, w recent years the service sector has overtaken agriculture as the economy's largest employer due to growth w tourism and free trade zones. The economy is highly dependent upon the US, the source of nearly 80% of exports, and remittances represent about a tenth of Produkt krajowy brutto, equivalent to almost half of exports and three-quarters of tourism receipts. With the help of strict fiscal targets agreed to w the 2004 renegotiation of an IMF standby loan, President FERNANDEZ has stabilized the country's financial situation, lowereing inflation to less than 6%. A fiscal expansion is expected dla 2008 prior to the elections w maj and dla Tropical Storm Noel reconstruction. Although the economy is growing at a respectable rate, high unemployment and underemployment remains an important challenge. The country suffers from marked income inequality; the poorest half of the population receives less than one-fifth of GNP, while the richest 10% enjoys nearly 40% of national income. The Central America-Republika Dominikanska Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) came into force w marzec 2007, which should boost investment and exports and diminishes losses to the Asian garment industry.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 8.791 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 12.22 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m

highest point: Pico Duarte 3,175 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy water shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages coral reefs; deforestation
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Grupy etniczne mixed 73%, white 16%, black 11%
Kurs waluty Dominikan pesos per US dollar - 33.113 (2007), 33.406 (2006), 30.409 (2005), 42.12 (2004), 30.831 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 sierpien 2004); Vice President Rafael ALBURQUERQUE de Castro (since 16 sierpien 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 sierpien 2004); Vice President Rafael ALBURQUERQUE de Castro (since 16 sierpien 2004)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms (eligible dla a second consecutive term); election last held 16 maj 2004 (next to be held w maj 2008)

election results: Leonel FERNANDEZ elected president; percent of vote - Leonel FERNANDEZ 57.1%, Rafael Hipolito MEJIA Dominguez 33.7%, Eduardo ESTRELLA 8.7%
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $6.881 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary ferronickel, sugar, gold, silver, coffee, cocoa, tobacco, meats, consumer goods
Eksport - partnerzy US 72.7%, UK 3.2%, Belgia 2.4% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi a centered white cross that extends to the edges divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, and the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms featuring a shield supported by an olive branch (left) and a palm branch (right) is at the center of the cross; above the shield a blue ribbon displays the motto, DIOS, PATRIA, LIBERTAD (God, Fatherland, Liberty), and below the shield, REPUBLICA DOMINICANA appears on a red ribbon
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 11.5%

industry: 28.3%

services: 60.2% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 7.2% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 19 00 N, 70 40 W
Polozenie geograficzne shares island of Hispaniola z Haiti
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1.4%

highest 10%: 41.1% (2004)
Narkotyki transshipment point dla South American drugs destined dla the US and Europe; has become a transshipment point dla ecstasy from the Holandia and Belgia destined dla US and Kanada; substantial money laundering activity; Kolumbian narcotics traffickers favor the Republika Dominikanska dla illicit financial transactions; significant amphetamine consumption
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $12.89 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 239.8 million cu m (2005)
Import 116,700 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals
Import - partnerzy US 46.9%, Wenezuela 8.4%, Kolumbia 6.3%, Meksyk 5.7% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 27 luty 1844 (from Haiti)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5.5% (2007 est.)
Przemysl tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining, textiles, cement, tobacco
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 27.94 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 30.05 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 25.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 5.8% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACP, Caricom (observer), FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (suspended), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 2,750 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the National Judicial Council comprised of the president, the leaders of both chambers of congress, the president of the Supreme Court, and an additional non-governing party congressional representative)
Sila robocza 3.986 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 17%

industry: 24.3%

services: 58.7% (1998 est.)
Granica total: 360 km

border countries: Haiti 360 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 22.49%

permanent crops: 10.26%

other: 67.25% (2005)
Jezyki Spanish
System prawny based on French civil codes; Criminal Procedures Code modified w 2004 to include important elements of an accusatory system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (32 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Diputados (178 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 16 maj 2006 (next to be held w maj 2008); House of Representatives - last held 16 maj 2006 (next to be held w maj 2008)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PLD 22, PRD 6, PRSC 4; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PLD 96, PRD 60, PRSC 22
Zywotnosc total population: 73.07 years

male: 71.34 years

female: 74.87 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 87%

male: 86.8%

female: 87.2% (2002 census)
Lokalizacja Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Ocean Atlantycki, east of Haiti
Lokalizacja na mapie Central America and the Caribbean
Morskie obszary measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines

territorial sea: 6 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 1 ship (1000 GRT or over) 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT

by type: cargo 1

registered w other countries: 1 (Panama 1) (2007)
Wojsko Army, Navy, Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Dominikana, FAD) (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 0.8% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 27 luty (1844)
Narodowosc noun: Dominikan(s)

adjective: Dominikan
Naturalne zagrozenia lies w the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from czerwiec to pazdziernik; occasional flooding; periodic droughts
Surowce naturalne nickel, bauxite, gold, silver
Wspolczynnik migracji -2.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Dominikan Liberation Party or PLD [Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna]; Dominikan Revolutionary Party or PRD [Ramon ALBURQUERQUE]; National Progressive Front [Vincent CASTILLO, Pelegrin CASTILLO]; Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Enrique ANTUN]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Citizen Participation Group (Participacion Ciudadania); Collective of Popular Organizations or COP; Foundation dla Institution-Building and Justice (FINJUS)
Ludnosc 9,365,818 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 42.2% (2004)
Przyrost naturalny 1.5% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 120, FM 56, shortwave 4 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 517 km

standard gauge: 375 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 142 km 0.762-m gauge

note: additional 1,226 km operated by sugar companies w 1.076 m, 0.889 m, and 0.762-m gauges (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.038 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.042 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.868 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married persons regardless of age; note - members of the armed forces and national police cannot vote
System telefoniczny general assessment: relatively efficient system based on island-wide microwave radio relay network

domestic: fixed telephone line density is about 10 per 100 persons; multiple providers of mobile cellular service z a subscribership of roughly 50 per 100 persons

international: country code - 1-809; landing point dla the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 897,000 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 4.606 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 25 (2003)
Uksztaltowanie terenu rugged highlands and mountains z fertile valleys interspersed
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.81 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 15.5% (2007 est.)
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